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Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

Yin H, Xu L, Cai Y - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers.It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration.In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875, China. yinhao@mail.bnu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Annual PM10 concentration and population of different districts and counties in Beijing from 2009 to 2012.
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ijerph-12-09967-f002: Annual PM10 concentration and population of different districts and counties in Beijing from 2009 to 2012.

Mentions: Annual general PM10 pollution concentrations of Beijing from 2008 to 2012 and PM10 concentrations of 16 districts and counties from 2009 to 2012 were obtained from the Beijing Environmental Statement (2008–2012) [57]; PM10 concentrations in different districts/counties were missing for 2008. The annual PM10 concentrations in Beijing from 2008 to 2012, which were 122, 121, 121, 114 and 109 μg/m3, respectively, were higher than second-grade ambient air quality standard of China (annual concentration is 70 μg/m3 according to the China Ambient Air Quality Standard GB 3095-201) [42]. Beijing GDP per capita was $10,493, $10,891, $12,016, $13,286, $14,170 dollars, respectively, from 2008 to 2012; these data were collected from the Beijing statistical yearbooks from 2008 to 2012. For different districts and counties, the PM10 concentration and population data, which were obtained from the Information Statistics Bureau websites, are illustrated in Figure 2.


Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

Yin H, Xu L, Cai Y - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Annual PM10 concentration and population of different districts and counties in Beijing from 2009 to 2012.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555323&req=5

ijerph-12-09967-f002: Annual PM10 concentration and population of different districts and counties in Beijing from 2009 to 2012.
Mentions: Annual general PM10 pollution concentrations of Beijing from 2008 to 2012 and PM10 concentrations of 16 districts and counties from 2009 to 2012 were obtained from the Beijing Environmental Statement (2008–2012) [57]; PM10 concentrations in different districts/counties were missing for 2008. The annual PM10 concentrations in Beijing from 2008 to 2012, which were 122, 121, 121, 114 and 109 μg/m3, respectively, were higher than second-grade ambient air quality standard of China (annual concentration is 70 μg/m3 according to the China Ambient Air Quality Standard GB 3095-201) [42]. Beijing GDP per capita was $10,493, $10,891, $12,016, $13,286, $14,170 dollars, respectively, from 2008 to 2012; these data were collected from the Beijing statistical yearbooks from 2008 to 2012. For different districts and counties, the PM10 concentration and population data, which were obtained from the Information Statistics Bureau websites, are illustrated in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers.It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration.In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875, China. yinhao@mail.bnu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus