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The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community-A Pilot Study.

Green A, Jones AD, Sun K, Neitzel RL - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq.Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj.These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. aggreen@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT
We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (-1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18), a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq) over that period (95% CI: 0.08-0.42, Adj R(2) = 0.502, n = 17). A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj. R(2) = 0.229, n = 16). Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22). Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO) guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Change in salivary cortisol measurements over sampling period (morning to evening) for females (n = 9) and males (n = 8). Total duration between afternoon and morning samples ranged from 13.4–19.4 hours.
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ijerph-12-09952-f001: Change in salivary cortisol measurements over sampling period (morning to evening) for females (n = 9) and males (n = 8). Total duration between afternoon and morning samples ranged from 13.4–19.4 hours.

Mentions: Patterns in morning to evening change for women and men are shown in Figure 1. Compared to women, men showed less of a decline in cortisol from morning to evening (−2.30 ± 4.86 nmol/L and −0.59 ± 3.93, respectively). This difference, however, was not significant (p = 0.755). Morning to evening change was similar for miners and non-miners, and no trend was observed for level of education completed.


The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community-A Pilot Study.

Green A, Jones AD, Sun K, Neitzel RL - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Change in salivary cortisol measurements over sampling period (morning to evening) for females (n = 9) and males (n = 8). Total duration between afternoon and morning samples ranged from 13.4–19.4 hours.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555322&req=5

ijerph-12-09952-f001: Change in salivary cortisol measurements over sampling period (morning to evening) for females (n = 9) and males (n = 8). Total duration between afternoon and morning samples ranged from 13.4–19.4 hours.
Mentions: Patterns in morning to evening change for women and men are shown in Figure 1. Compared to women, men showed less of a decline in cortisol from morning to evening (−2.30 ± 4.86 nmol/L and −0.59 ± 3.93, respectively). This difference, however, was not significant (p = 0.755). Morning to evening change was similar for miners and non-miners, and no trend was observed for level of education completed.

Bottom Line: A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq.Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj.These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. aggreen@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT
We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (-1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18), a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq) over that period (95% CI: 0.08-0.42, Adj R(2) = 0.502, n = 17). A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj. R(2) = 0.229, n = 16). Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22). Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO) guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus