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Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus.

Ribeiro MJ, Maria VL, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Amorim MJ - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: MT increased only for AgNP.LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP.These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag(+) ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. mariajribeiro@ua.pt.

ABSTRACT
The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g. CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for  7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag(+) ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correspondence analysis of data from Enchytraeus crypticus exposed to AgNP (Ag NM300K) [60 (EC20), 170 (EC50) and 225 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil] and AgNO3 [45 (EC20), 60 (EC50) and 96 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil], as sampled at 0–3–7 days (designated T_0, T_3 and T_7), in terms of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). CE: confidence ellipses.
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ijerph-12-09589-f002: Correspondence analysis of data from Enchytraeus crypticus exposed to AgNP (Ag NM300K) [60 (EC20), 170 (EC50) and 225 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil] and AgNO3 [45 (EC20), 60 (EC50) and 96 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil], as sampled at 0–3–7 days (designated T_0, T_3 and T_7), in terms of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). CE: confidence ellipses.

Mentions: The multivariate analysis of the data (Correspondence Analysis) enabled an identification of the overall differences between the AgNO3 and AgNP exposures (Figure 2), with a clear separation of the AgNO3 and AgNP. It should be noted that whereas Figure 1 shows mean values and standard errors, the multivariate plot displays the individual replicates. When treating the time (d) separately (Figure 2B,C), an even clearer difference was observed. Whereas CAT has no importance for the separation between the exposures on day 3 it was the main descriptor for AgNP for the day 7. LPO, GST and GPx were for both days associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with the AgNP over both days.


Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus.

Ribeiro MJ, Maria VL, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Amorim MJ - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Correspondence analysis of data from Enchytraeus crypticus exposed to AgNP (Ag NM300K) [60 (EC20), 170 (EC50) and 225 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil] and AgNO3 [45 (EC20), 60 (EC50) and 96 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil], as sampled at 0–3–7 days (designated T_0, T_3 and T_7), in terms of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). CE: confidence ellipses.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555300&req=5

ijerph-12-09589-f002: Correspondence analysis of data from Enchytraeus crypticus exposed to AgNP (Ag NM300K) [60 (EC20), 170 (EC50) and 225 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil] and AgNO3 [45 (EC20), 60 (EC50) and 96 (EC80) mg Ag/kg soil], as sampled at 0–3–7 days (designated T_0, T_3 and T_7), in terms of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). CE: confidence ellipses.
Mentions: The multivariate analysis of the data (Correspondence Analysis) enabled an identification of the overall differences between the AgNO3 and AgNP exposures (Figure 2), with a clear separation of the AgNO3 and AgNP. It should be noted that whereas Figure 1 shows mean values and standard errors, the multivariate plot displays the individual replicates. When treating the time (d) separately (Figure 2B,C), an even clearer difference was observed. Whereas CAT has no importance for the separation between the exposures on day 3 it was the main descriptor for AgNP for the day 7. LPO, GST and GPx were for both days associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with the AgNP over both days.

Bottom Line: MT increased only for AgNP.LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP.These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag(+) ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. mariajribeiro@ua.pt.

ABSTRACT
The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g. CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for  7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag(+) ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus