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Dengue Vaccines: A Perspective from the Point of View of Intellectual Property.

da Veiga CP, da Veiga CR, Del Corso JM, da Silva WV - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that 93% of patents were granted since 2000, the majority belonging to the United States and Europe, although the share of patents from developing countries has increased.Finally, in this study, the main holders showed high knowledge absorption and generated capabilities.Therefore, this issue suggests that to overcome the difficulty of translational R & D it is necessary to stimulate the generation of knowledge and relevant scientific research, to enable the productive sector to have the capacity to absorb knowledge, to turn it into innovation, and to articulate partnerships and collaboration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, PUCPR, Rua Imaculada Conceição, 1155 Prado Velho, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR, Brazil. claudimar.veiga@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Dengue is a serious infectious disease and a growing public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. To control this neglected tropical disease (NTD), vaccines are likely to be the most cost-effective solution. This study analyzed dengue vaccines from both a historical and longitudinal perspective by using patent data, evaluating the geographic and time coverage of innovations, the primary patent holders, the network of cooperation and partnership for vaccine research and development (R & D), the flow of knowledge and the technological domain involved. This study can be seen as an example of the use of patent information to inform policy discussions, strategic research planning, and technology transfer. The results show that 93% of patents were granted since 2000, the majority belonging to the United States and Europe, although the share of patents from developing countries has increased. Unlike another NTDs, there is great participation of private companies in R & D of dengue vaccines and partnerships and collaboration between public and private companies. Finally, in this study, the main holders showed high knowledge absorption and generated capabilities. Therefore, this issue suggests that to overcome the difficulty of translational R & D it is necessary to stimulate the generation of knowledge and relevant scientific research, to enable the productive sector to have the capacity to absorb knowledge, to turn it into innovation, and to articulate partnerships and collaboration.

No MeSH data available.


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Holders’ classification by the number and type of citation.
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ijerph-12-09454-f009: Holders’ classification by the number and type of citation.

Mentions: Figure 8 also demonstrates the presence of a small number of universities involved in the flow of knowledge (only Mahidol—Part J and Virogenetics—Part F) which suggests some conclusions: (i) universities have generated few patents/R & D on the topic at hand; (ii) universities may not be responsible for the basic knowledge required for the technologies involved in this type of innovation; and (ii) universities can transfer the generated knowledge through other sources such as conferences and scientific papers. The analysis of Figure 8 and Figure 9 is also useful as an empirical basis for evaluating mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry as these processes may occur due to the need to expand portfolios, with the goal of acquiring new technology [40] or the need for legal adjustments to the use of technology protected by IP rights [41]. It is important to remember that Inviragen was acquired by Takeda and the Acambis by Sanofi Pasteur. The assessment of both co-ownership and co-citation shows strong correlation between these companies (Figure 8, Parts A and H). Finally, the analysis of Figure 8 may also be of interest for evaluating the technological overlap of products in development since any company whose patents are citing a given patent is likely to be operating in the same technological area [34]. This complex analysis is beyond the scope of this work, but studies about the technological base of dengue vaccine suggest technical proximity of some products like those patented by Inviragen (Takeda), Acambis (Sanofi-Pasteur) and NIH, which have technologies that are all variants of the Chimeric Live Attenuated Dengue Vaccines [16]. The flow of knowledge established between these companies can be seen in Figure 8 (Part A). Finally, Figure 9 illustrates the classification of each holder by the number and type of citations. US Government agencies, Inviragen, Takeda, Mahidol University, Sanofi Pasteur and Merck Sharp & Dohme can be considered higher absorptive capability companies and US Government agencies (except CDC), Sanofi Pasteur, Merck Sharp & Dohme and Virogenetics have higher ability to generate and export innovative outputs. It is important to note that late-stage dengue vaccine developers [25] such as Takeda, US Army (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation), and Sanofi Pasteur have higher absorption capabilities. The main holders (US Department of Health and Human Service) showed both high absorption of knowledge and generation of capabilities.


Dengue Vaccines: A Perspective from the Point of View of Intellectual Property.

da Veiga CP, da Veiga CR, Del Corso JM, da Silva WV - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Holders’ classification by the number and type of citation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555291&req=5

ijerph-12-09454-f009: Holders’ classification by the number and type of citation.
Mentions: Figure 8 also demonstrates the presence of a small number of universities involved in the flow of knowledge (only Mahidol—Part J and Virogenetics—Part F) which suggests some conclusions: (i) universities have generated few patents/R & D on the topic at hand; (ii) universities may not be responsible for the basic knowledge required for the technologies involved in this type of innovation; and (ii) universities can transfer the generated knowledge through other sources such as conferences and scientific papers. The analysis of Figure 8 and Figure 9 is also useful as an empirical basis for evaluating mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry as these processes may occur due to the need to expand portfolios, with the goal of acquiring new technology [40] or the need for legal adjustments to the use of technology protected by IP rights [41]. It is important to remember that Inviragen was acquired by Takeda and the Acambis by Sanofi Pasteur. The assessment of both co-ownership and co-citation shows strong correlation between these companies (Figure 8, Parts A and H). Finally, the analysis of Figure 8 may also be of interest for evaluating the technological overlap of products in development since any company whose patents are citing a given patent is likely to be operating in the same technological area [34]. This complex analysis is beyond the scope of this work, but studies about the technological base of dengue vaccine suggest technical proximity of some products like those patented by Inviragen (Takeda), Acambis (Sanofi-Pasteur) and NIH, which have technologies that are all variants of the Chimeric Live Attenuated Dengue Vaccines [16]. The flow of knowledge established between these companies can be seen in Figure 8 (Part A). Finally, Figure 9 illustrates the classification of each holder by the number and type of citations. US Government agencies, Inviragen, Takeda, Mahidol University, Sanofi Pasteur and Merck Sharp & Dohme can be considered higher absorptive capability companies and US Government agencies (except CDC), Sanofi Pasteur, Merck Sharp & Dohme and Virogenetics have higher ability to generate and export innovative outputs. It is important to note that late-stage dengue vaccine developers [25] such as Takeda, US Army (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation), and Sanofi Pasteur have higher absorption capabilities. The main holders (US Department of Health and Human Service) showed both high absorption of knowledge and generation of capabilities.

Bottom Line: The results show that 93% of patents were granted since 2000, the majority belonging to the United States and Europe, although the share of patents from developing countries has increased.Finally, in this study, the main holders showed high knowledge absorption and generated capabilities.Therefore, this issue suggests that to overcome the difficulty of translational R & D it is necessary to stimulate the generation of knowledge and relevant scientific research, to enable the productive sector to have the capacity to absorb knowledge, to turn it into innovation, and to articulate partnerships and collaboration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, PUCPR, Rua Imaculada Conceição, 1155 Prado Velho, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR, Brazil. claudimar.veiga@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Dengue is a serious infectious disease and a growing public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. To control this neglected tropical disease (NTD), vaccines are likely to be the most cost-effective solution. This study analyzed dengue vaccines from both a historical and longitudinal perspective by using patent data, evaluating the geographic and time coverage of innovations, the primary patent holders, the network of cooperation and partnership for vaccine research and development (R & D), the flow of knowledge and the technological domain involved. This study can be seen as an example of the use of patent information to inform policy discussions, strategic research planning, and technology transfer. The results show that 93% of patents were granted since 2000, the majority belonging to the United States and Europe, although the share of patents from developing countries has increased. Unlike another NTDs, there is great participation of private companies in R & D of dengue vaccines and partnerships and collaboration between public and private companies. Finally, in this study, the main holders showed high knowledge absorption and generated capabilities. Therefore, this issue suggests that to overcome the difficulty of translational R & D it is necessary to stimulate the generation of knowledge and relevant scientific research, to enable the productive sector to have the capacity to absorb knowledge, to turn it into innovation, and to articulate partnerships and collaboration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus