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Brand Cigarillos: Low Price but High Particulate Matter Levels-Is Their Favorable Taxation in the European Union Justified?

Wasel J, Boll M, Schulze M, Mueller D, Bundschuh M, Groneberg DA, Gerber A - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared.CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Haus 9b, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany. julia.wasel@arcor.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Second hand smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) contributes considerably to indoor air contamination and constitutes a health risk for passive smokers. Easy to measure, PM is a useful parameter to estimate the dosage of ETS that passive smokers are exposed to. Apart from its suitability as a surrogate parameter for ETS-exposure, PM itself affects human morbidity and mortality in a dose-dependent manner. We think that ETS-associated PM should be considered an independent hazard factor, separately from the many other known harmful compounds of ETS. We believe that brand-specific and tobacco-product-specific differences in the release of PM matter and that these differences are of public interest.

Methods: To generate ETS of cigarettes and cigarillos as standardized and reproducible as possible, an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed and placed in a glass chamber. L&M cigarettes ("without additives", "red label", "blue label"), L&M filtered cigarillos ("red") and 3R4F standard research cigarettes (as reference) were smoked automatically according to a self-developed, standardized protocol until the tobacco product was smoked down to 8 mm distance from the tipping paper of the filter.

Results: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared. CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red"). AUCPM2.5-values were 208,214 μg/m(3)·s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 204,629 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 152,718 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "blue label", 238,098 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "red label" and 796,909 μg/m(3)·s for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").

Conclusion: Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AUC are compared: The interval from ignition to extinction was evaluated for each tobacco product and AUC were compared. “*” means significant (p < 0.05), “n.s.” means not significant.
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ijerph-12-09141-f005: AUC are compared: The interval from ignition to extinction was evaluated for each tobacco product and AUC were compared. “*” means significant (p < 0.05), “n.s.” means not significant.

Mentions: The statistic program “Graph Pad Prism 5.03” was used for all statistical calculations and graphic representations. Cmean PM2.5 was measured in the timespan between ignition and extinction of each cigarette and cigarillo Figure 3 and the area under the curve (AUC) PM2.5 was calculated as integral in a plot of CmeanPM2.5 from ignition to extinction of the tobacco product against the time. This method is commonly known from toxico-pharmacological studies were it is usually used in plots of drugs in blood plasma against time. Twenty tobacco products of each type (n = 20) were examined and all types were compared against the 3R4F reference cigarette respectively, using the one sample t-test. The individual exposure parameters (CmeanPM2.5 and AUC PM2.5) of all tobacco products were tested for Gaussian distribution before performing the t-test. They proved to be normally distributed. Using the one-sample t-test, significant differences between two tobacco products (3R4F reference + brand cigarette or brand cigarillo) were assumed when p < 0.05 Figure 4 and Figure 5. Finally, Bonferroni’s correction was performed to counteract the problem of multiple comparisons.


Brand Cigarillos: Low Price but High Particulate Matter Levels-Is Their Favorable Taxation in the European Union Justified?

Wasel J, Boll M, Schulze M, Mueller D, Bundschuh M, Groneberg DA, Gerber A - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

AUC are compared: The interval from ignition to extinction was evaluated for each tobacco product and AUC were compared. “*” means significant (p < 0.05), “n.s.” means not significant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555270&req=5

ijerph-12-09141-f005: AUC are compared: The interval from ignition to extinction was evaluated for each tobacco product and AUC were compared. “*” means significant (p < 0.05), “n.s.” means not significant.
Mentions: The statistic program “Graph Pad Prism 5.03” was used for all statistical calculations and graphic representations. Cmean PM2.5 was measured in the timespan between ignition and extinction of each cigarette and cigarillo Figure 3 and the area under the curve (AUC) PM2.5 was calculated as integral in a plot of CmeanPM2.5 from ignition to extinction of the tobacco product against the time. This method is commonly known from toxico-pharmacological studies were it is usually used in plots of drugs in blood plasma against time. Twenty tobacco products of each type (n = 20) were examined and all types were compared against the 3R4F reference cigarette respectively, using the one sample t-test. The individual exposure parameters (CmeanPM2.5 and AUC PM2.5) of all tobacco products were tested for Gaussian distribution before performing the t-test. They proved to be normally distributed. Using the one-sample t-test, significant differences between two tobacco products (3R4F reference + brand cigarette or brand cigarillo) were assumed when p < 0.05 Figure 4 and Figure 5. Finally, Bonferroni’s correction was performed to counteract the problem of multiple comparisons.

Bottom Line: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared.CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&amp;M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&amp;M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&amp;M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&amp;M filtered cigarillos ("red").Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Haus 9b, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany. julia.wasel@arcor.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Second hand smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) contributes considerably to indoor air contamination and constitutes a health risk for passive smokers. Easy to measure, PM is a useful parameter to estimate the dosage of ETS that passive smokers are exposed to. Apart from its suitability as a surrogate parameter for ETS-exposure, PM itself affects human morbidity and mortality in a dose-dependent manner. We think that ETS-associated PM should be considered an independent hazard factor, separately from the many other known harmful compounds of ETS. We believe that brand-specific and tobacco-product-specific differences in the release of PM matter and that these differences are of public interest.

Methods: To generate ETS of cigarettes and cigarillos as standardized and reproducible as possible, an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed and placed in a glass chamber. L&M cigarettes ("without additives", "red label", "blue label"), L&M filtered cigarillos ("red") and 3R4F standard research cigarettes (as reference) were smoked automatically according to a self-developed, standardized protocol until the tobacco product was smoked down to 8 mm distance from the tipping paper of the filter.

Results: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared. CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red"). AUCPM2.5-values were 208,214 μg/m(3)·s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 204,629 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 152,718 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "blue label", 238,098 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "red label" and 796,909 μg/m(3)·s for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").

Conclusion: Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus