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Brand Cigarillos: Low Price but High Particulate Matter Levels-Is Their Favorable Taxation in the European Union Justified?

Wasel J, Boll M, Schulze M, Mueller D, Bundschuh M, Groneberg DA, Gerber A - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared.CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Haus 9b, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany. julia.wasel@arcor.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Second hand smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) contributes considerably to indoor air contamination and constitutes a health risk for passive smokers. Easy to measure, PM is a useful parameter to estimate the dosage of ETS that passive smokers are exposed to. Apart from its suitability as a surrogate parameter for ETS-exposure, PM itself affects human morbidity and mortality in a dose-dependent manner. We think that ETS-associated PM should be considered an independent hazard factor, separately from the many other known harmful compounds of ETS. We believe that brand-specific and tobacco-product-specific differences in the release of PM matter and that these differences are of public interest.

Methods: To generate ETS of cigarettes and cigarillos as standardized and reproducible as possible, an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed and placed in a glass chamber. L&M cigarettes ("without additives", "red label", "blue label"), L&M filtered cigarillos ("red") and 3R4F standard research cigarettes (as reference) were smoked automatically according to a self-developed, standardized protocol until the tobacco product was smoked down to 8 mm distance from the tipping paper of the filter.

Results: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared. CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red"). AUCPM2.5-values were 208,214 μg/m(3)·s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 204,629 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 152,718 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "blue label", 238,098 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "red label" and 796,909 μg/m(3)·s for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").

Conclusion: Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter: The AETSE consists of a glass syringe with a plunger, a stepper motor to pull and push the plunger, a micro-controller that drives the motor and aluminium parts. Two rubber gloves are embedded into the glass panel to help operate the system.
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ijerph-12-09141-f001: Automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter: The AETSE consists of a glass syringe with a plunger, a stepper motor to pull and push the plunger, a micro-controller that drives the motor and aluminium parts. Two rubber gloves are embedded into the glass panel to help operate the system.

Mentions: This study was performed according to the ToPIQ II study protocol [20]. Cigarettes and cigarillos were smoked in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber using an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE, Schimpf-Ing Inc., Trondheim, Norway) (Figure 1A,B). PM2.5 levels were recorded, as well as temperature, air movement, and relative humidity within the chamber.


Brand Cigarillos: Low Price but High Particulate Matter Levels-Is Their Favorable Taxation in the European Union Justified?

Wasel J, Boll M, Schulze M, Mueller D, Bundschuh M, Groneberg DA, Gerber A - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter: The AETSE consists of a glass syringe with a plunger, a stepper motor to pull and push the plunger, a micro-controller that drives the motor and aluminium parts. Two rubber gloves are embedded into the glass panel to help operate the system.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555270&req=5

ijerph-12-09141-f001: Automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter: The AETSE consists of a glass syringe with a plunger, a stepper motor to pull and push the plunger, a micro-controller that drives the motor and aluminium parts. Two rubber gloves are embedded into the glass panel to help operate the system.
Mentions: This study was performed according to the ToPIQ II study protocol [20]. Cigarettes and cigarillos were smoked in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber using an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE, Schimpf-Ing Inc., Trondheim, Norway) (Figure 1A,B). PM2.5 levels were recorded, as well as temperature, air movement, and relative humidity within the chamber.

Bottom Line: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared.CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Haus 9b, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany. julia.wasel@arcor.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Second hand smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) contributes considerably to indoor air contamination and constitutes a health risk for passive smokers. Easy to measure, PM is a useful parameter to estimate the dosage of ETS that passive smokers are exposed to. Apart from its suitability as a surrogate parameter for ETS-exposure, PM itself affects human morbidity and mortality in a dose-dependent manner. We think that ETS-associated PM should be considered an independent hazard factor, separately from the many other known harmful compounds of ETS. We believe that brand-specific and tobacco-product-specific differences in the release of PM matter and that these differences are of public interest.

Methods: To generate ETS of cigarettes and cigarillos as standardized and reproducible as possible, an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed and placed in a glass chamber. L&M cigarettes ("without additives", "red label", "blue label"), L&M filtered cigarillos ("red") and 3R4F standard research cigarettes (as reference) were smoked automatically according to a self-developed, standardized protocol until the tobacco product was smoked down to 8 mm distance from the tipping paper of the filter.

Results: Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared. CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red"). AUCPM2.5-values were 208,214 μg/m(3)·s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 204,629 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 152,718 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "blue label", 238,098 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "red label" and 796,909 μg/m(3)·s for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red").

Conclusion: Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable taxation of cigarillos is not justifiable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus