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A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans.

Ngole-Jeme VM, Ekosse GI - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t).The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication.Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. vm.ngole@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

No MeSH data available.


Map showing location of sampling points in the three different countries.
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ijerph-12-08933-f001: Map showing location of sampling points in the three different countries.

Mentions: Soils ingested in Swaziland were collected from Ezulwini, Mahlanya, Mphembekati and Mbekelweni (Manzini neighborhood), Elangeni Mountain, and Nsingweni (Figure 1). Swaziland soils are highly weathered ferralitic soils having a low cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the high veld region whereas those from the low veld region (Manzini, Mahlanya and Ezulwini) are moderately weathered with a higher clay content and CEC [35]. The soil samples from Democratic Republic of Congo were collected from Lubumbashi and Kinshasa. Though arenosols derived from the Kalahari sands dominate the soil cover of Kinshasa, strongly weathered ferralsols make up a greater part of the soil of DRC [36]. These soils are characterised by a sandy texture, low clay content and low CEC. Samples of geophagic soils ingested in South Africa came from Bloemfontein and the Eastern Cape. Sandy to clayey and shallow soils are found in the Bloemfontein region whereas soils from the Eastern Cape generally contain less than 15% clay and are mainly derived from the weathering of basalt and dolerite origin. Quartz, mica, and/or kaolinite dominate the mineral composition of these soils [37].


A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans.

Ngole-Jeme VM, Ekosse GI - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Map showing location of sampling points in the three different countries.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555257&req=5

ijerph-12-08933-f001: Map showing location of sampling points in the three different countries.
Mentions: Soils ingested in Swaziland were collected from Ezulwini, Mahlanya, Mphembekati and Mbekelweni (Manzini neighborhood), Elangeni Mountain, and Nsingweni (Figure 1). Swaziland soils are highly weathered ferralitic soils having a low cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the high veld region whereas those from the low veld region (Manzini, Mahlanya and Ezulwini) are moderately weathered with a higher clay content and CEC [35]. The soil samples from Democratic Republic of Congo were collected from Lubumbashi and Kinshasa. Though arenosols derived from the Kalahari sands dominate the soil cover of Kinshasa, strongly weathered ferralsols make up a greater part of the soil of DRC [36]. These soils are characterised by a sandy texture, low clay content and low CEC. Samples of geophagic soils ingested in South Africa came from Bloemfontein and the Eastern Cape. Sandy to clayey and shallow soils are found in the Bloemfontein region whereas soils from the Eastern Cape generally contain less than 15% clay and are mainly derived from the weathering of basalt and dolerite origin. Quartz, mica, and/or kaolinite dominate the mineral composition of these soils [37].

Bottom Line: The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t).The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication.Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. vm.ngole@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

No MeSH data available.