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Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

Bonfanti P, Moschini E, Saibene M, Bacchetta R, Rettighieri L, Calabri L, Colombo A, Mantecca P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity.Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects.Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, POLARIS Research Centre, University of Milano Bicocca, 1 Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milan, Italy. patrizia.bonfanti@unimib.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1-100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Light (a–d) and electron microscopy (e–h) imaging of the X. laevis small intestine. Transversal sections at the level of an intestinal loop of a control (a), bZnO (b) and sZnO (c,d) exposed embryos. Magnification of the sZnO intestinal loop (d) shows the swelling of paracellular spaces between cells (empty arrow) and detachment in some regions of epithelial cells from basal lamina (*). These damages are more evident in the detail of the junctional complex between two enterocytes (g) (black arrow) and of the basal portion (h) (*) of sZnO-exposed embryos in comparison to the control (e) (black arrow) and (f) (*). ► = brush border; gl = gut lumen.
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ijerph-12-08828-f007: Light (a–d) and electron microscopy (e–h) imaging of the X. laevis small intestine. Transversal sections at the level of an intestinal loop of a control (a), bZnO (b) and sZnO (c,d) exposed embryos. Magnification of the sZnO intestinal loop (d) shows the swelling of paracellular spaces between cells (empty arrow) and detachment in some regions of epithelial cells from basal lamina (*). These damages are more evident in the detail of the junctional complex between two enterocytes (g) (black arrow) and of the basal portion (h) (*) of sZnO-exposed embryos in comparison to the control (e) (black arrow) and (f) (*). ► = brush border; gl = gut lumen.

Mentions: Since abnormal gut coiling was the main feature of ZnONP-treated embryos, preliminary histological and ultrastructural analyses of small intestine were performed (Figure 7).


Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

Bonfanti P, Moschini E, Saibene M, Bacchetta R, Rettighieri L, Calabri L, Colombo A, Mantecca P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Light (a–d) and electron microscopy (e–h) imaging of the X. laevis small intestine. Transversal sections at the level of an intestinal loop of a control (a), bZnO (b) and sZnO (c,d) exposed embryos. Magnification of the sZnO intestinal loop (d) shows the swelling of paracellular spaces between cells (empty arrow) and detachment in some regions of epithelial cells from basal lamina (*). These damages are more evident in the detail of the junctional complex between two enterocytes (g) (black arrow) and of the basal portion (h) (*) of sZnO-exposed embryos in comparison to the control (e) (black arrow) and (f) (*). ► = brush border; gl = gut lumen.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555250&req=5

ijerph-12-08828-f007: Light (a–d) and electron microscopy (e–h) imaging of the X. laevis small intestine. Transversal sections at the level of an intestinal loop of a control (a), bZnO (b) and sZnO (c,d) exposed embryos. Magnification of the sZnO intestinal loop (d) shows the swelling of paracellular spaces between cells (empty arrow) and detachment in some regions of epithelial cells from basal lamina (*). These damages are more evident in the detail of the junctional complex between two enterocytes (g) (black arrow) and of the basal portion (h) (*) of sZnO-exposed embryos in comparison to the control (e) (black arrow) and (f) (*). ► = brush border; gl = gut lumen.
Mentions: Since abnormal gut coiling was the main feature of ZnONP-treated embryos, preliminary histological and ultrastructural analyses of small intestine were performed (Figure 7).

Bottom Line: Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity.Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects.Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, POLARIS Research Centre, University of Milano Bicocca, 1 Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milan, Italy. patrizia.bonfanti@unimib.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1-100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus