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Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

Bonfanti P, Moschini E, Saibene M, Bacchetta R, Rettighieri L, Calabri L, Colombo A, Mantecca P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity.Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects.Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, POLARIS Research Centre, University of Milano Bicocca, 1 Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milan, Italy. patrizia.bonfanti@unimib.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1-100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SOD enzymatic activity in embryos exposed to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO 50 mg/L during different developmental stages. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae.
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ijerph-12-08828-f006: SOD enzymatic activity in embryos exposed to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO 50 mg/L during different developmental stages. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae.

Mentions: Oxidative stress induced by 50 mg/L of nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO at Stage 46 whole embryos of all experimental groups was investigated by measuring SOD activity, which provides the first defense against ROS toxicity. As shown in Figure 6, we observed a slight, but not significant, decrease in SOD activity if compared to the control in all of the experimental groups. This result suggests that the production of ROS potentially induced by ZnONPs exposure, if any, is not able to elicit a clear alteration in SOD activity, at least if it is measured in pools of whole embryos and not in single embryos or in target organ.


Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

Bonfanti P, Moschini E, Saibene M, Bacchetta R, Rettighieri L, Calabri L, Colombo A, Mantecca P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

SOD enzymatic activity in embryos exposed to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO 50 mg/L during different developmental stages. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555250&req=5

ijerph-12-08828-f006: SOD enzymatic activity in embryos exposed to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO 50 mg/L during different developmental stages. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae.
Mentions: Oxidative stress induced by 50 mg/L of nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO at Stage 46 whole embryos of all experimental groups was investigated by measuring SOD activity, which provides the first defense against ROS toxicity. As shown in Figure 6, we observed a slight, but not significant, decrease in SOD activity if compared to the control in all of the experimental groups. This result suggests that the production of ROS potentially induced by ZnONPs exposure, if any, is not able to elicit a clear alteration in SOD activity, at least if it is measured in pools of whole embryos and not in single embryos or in target organ.

Bottom Line: Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity.Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects.Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, POLARIS Research Centre, University of Milano Bicocca, 1 Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milan, Italy. patrizia.bonfanti@unimib.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1-100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus