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Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

Bonfanti P, Moschini E, Saibene M, Bacchetta R, Rettighieri L, Calabri L, Colombo A, Mantecca P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity.Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects.Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, POLARIS Research Centre, University of Milano Bicocca, 1 Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milan, Italy. patrizia.bonfanti@unimib.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1-100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparative FETAX malformation percentages after exposure of embryos to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO at 50 mg/L. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae. Bars = SEM; * statistically different from the control at p < 0.001; ** statistically different from the corresponding nude nanoparticles at p < 0.05; # statistically different from the corresponding PVP-coated bZnO at p < 0.05,ANOVA + Fisher LSD method.
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ijerph-12-08828-f004: Comparative FETAX malformation percentages after exposure of embryos to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO at 50 mg/L. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae. Bars = SEM; * statistically different from the control at p < 0.001; ** statistically different from the corresponding nude nanoparticles at p < 0.05; # statistically different from the corresponding PVP-coated bZnO at p < 0.05,ANOVA + Fisher LSD method.

Mentions: Based on previous embryotoxicity experiments, 50 mg/L of ZnONPs was selected as the effective concentration in order to assess the influence of surface coating on the embryotoxicity of the considered nanoparticles. We performed a specific FETAX assay comparing nude and polymer-coated (PVP and PEG) sZnO and bZnO, and the results are shown in Figure 4.


Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

Bonfanti P, Moschini E, Saibene M, Bacchetta R, Rettighieri L, Calabri L, Colombo A, Mantecca P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Comparative FETAX malformation percentages after exposure of embryos to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO at 50 mg/L. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae. Bars = SEM; * statistically different from the control at p < 0.001; ** statistically different from the corresponding nude nanoparticles at p < 0.05; # statistically different from the corresponding PVP-coated bZnO at p < 0.05,ANOVA + Fisher LSD method.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555250&req=5

ijerph-12-08828-f004: Comparative FETAX malformation percentages after exposure of embryos to nude and polymer-coated sZnO and bZnO at 50 mg/L. Dark grey = sZnO-exposed larvae; light grey = bZnO-exposed larvae. Bars = SEM; * statistically different from the control at p < 0.001; ** statistically different from the corresponding nude nanoparticles at p < 0.05; # statistically different from the corresponding PVP-coated bZnO at p < 0.05,ANOVA + Fisher LSD method.
Mentions: Based on previous embryotoxicity experiments, 50 mg/L of ZnONPs was selected as the effective concentration in order to assess the influence of surface coating on the embryotoxicity of the considered nanoparticles. We performed a specific FETAX assay comparing nude and polymer-coated (PVP and PEG) sZnO and bZnO, and the results are shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity.Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects.Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, POLARIS Research Centre, University of Milano Bicocca, 1 Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milan, Italy. patrizia.bonfanti@unimib.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1-100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus