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Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

Zhang Y, Leu YR, Aitken RJ, Riediker M - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products.Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP.Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: SAFENANO, IOM Singapore, 30 Raffles Place, #17-00 Chevron House, Singapore 048622, Singapore. Zhang.Yuanyuan@iom-world.sg.

ABSTRACT
Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

No MeSH data available.


Distribution and category of products with confirmed or likely use of nanomaterials.
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ijerph-12-08717-f001: Distribution and category of products with confirmed or likely use of nanomaterials.

Mentions: In the first step, reports and literature [3,8,9,20,22,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41], were reviewed to identify the most frequently used ENP and their applications. Ag, TiO2, Al/Al2O3, ZnO, SiO2, ceramics, iron/iron oxide, carbon nanomaterials, and nanoclays were identified as the most frequently used ENP in consumer products. The identified ENP along with its function and consumer product application are summarized in Table 1. These identified uses of ENP types guided our nano-inventory activities. In our Singapore market inventory, we evaluated 1432 articles. Of these, 431 were “confirmed” (138 articles) or “likely” (293 articles) to contain ENP. The results are summarized in Table 2. These ENP-containing products occurred in nine different categories: (1) sunscreen, (2) cosmetics, (3) health and fitness, (4) automotive, (5) food, (6) home and garden, (7) clothing and footwear, (8) eyeglass/lens coating, and (9) electronics (see Figure 1). A total of 27 different types of nanomaterials were identified in these articles. In particular, ENP were widely utilized in the category of Food (175 articles), Health and fitness (108 articles), Cosmetics (68 articles), and Sunscreen (23 articles). Of the total of 431 articles, 34 contained more than one type of nanomaterial (e.g., ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3). In our nano-inventory, it is relevant to note that housekeeping cleaning products supplied in the Singapore market such as laundry detergents or air fresheners have no detailed information regarding the products’ ingredients. Thus, it was not possible to assess if these products contained ENP or not.


Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

Zhang Y, Leu YR, Aitken RJ, Riediker M - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Distribution and category of products with confirmed or likely use of nanomaterials.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555244&req=5

ijerph-12-08717-f001: Distribution and category of products with confirmed or likely use of nanomaterials.
Mentions: In the first step, reports and literature [3,8,9,20,22,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41], were reviewed to identify the most frequently used ENP and their applications. Ag, TiO2, Al/Al2O3, ZnO, SiO2, ceramics, iron/iron oxide, carbon nanomaterials, and nanoclays were identified as the most frequently used ENP in consumer products. The identified ENP along with its function and consumer product application are summarized in Table 1. These identified uses of ENP types guided our nano-inventory activities. In our Singapore market inventory, we evaluated 1432 articles. Of these, 431 were “confirmed” (138 articles) or “likely” (293 articles) to contain ENP. The results are summarized in Table 2. These ENP-containing products occurred in nine different categories: (1) sunscreen, (2) cosmetics, (3) health and fitness, (4) automotive, (5) food, (6) home and garden, (7) clothing and footwear, (8) eyeglass/lens coating, and (9) electronics (see Figure 1). A total of 27 different types of nanomaterials were identified in these articles. In particular, ENP were widely utilized in the category of Food (175 articles), Health and fitness (108 articles), Cosmetics (68 articles), and Sunscreen (23 articles). Of the total of 431 articles, 34 contained more than one type of nanomaterial (e.g., ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3). In our nano-inventory, it is relevant to note that housekeeping cleaning products supplied in the Singapore market such as laundry detergents or air fresheners have no detailed information regarding the products’ ingredients. Thus, it was not possible to assess if these products contained ENP or not.

Bottom Line: This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products.Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP.Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: SAFENANO, IOM Singapore, 30 Raffles Place, #17-00 Chevron House, Singapore 048622, Singapore. Zhang.Yuanyuan@iom-world.sg.

ABSTRACT
Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

No MeSH data available.