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Transcriptomic Analysis of Musca domestica to Reveal Key Genes of the Prophenoloxidase-Activating System.

Li D, Liang Y, Wang X, Wang L, Qi M, Yu Y, Luan Y - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Bottom Line: Of the 89,842 unigenes, based on a similarity search with known genes in other insects, 24 putative genes related to the proPO system were identified.Eight of the identified genes encoded for peptidoglycan recognition receptors, two encoded for prophenoloxidases, three encoded for prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes, and 11 encoded for serine proteinase inhibitors.Collectively, this study has provided the comprehensive transcriptomic data of an insect and some fundamental basis toward achieving understanding of the activation mechanisms and immune functions of the proPO system in M. domestica.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology Department, The School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, People's Republic of China chm_lidx@ujn.edu.cn.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression profiles of candidate genes. The expression profiles of selected genes were detected by qRT-PCR using the third instar larvae at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr) after challenge by E. coli (A) or S. aureus (B), in which actin acted as the quantity and quality control to normalize interest gene expression level. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of three repeat amplifications. The asterisks represent significant differences from the control (unpaired t-test, ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05).
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fig10: Expression profiles of candidate genes. The expression profiles of selected genes were detected by qRT-PCR using the third instar larvae at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr) after challenge by E. coli (A) or S. aureus (B), in which actin acted as the quantity and quality control to normalize interest gene expression level. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of three repeat amplifications. The asterisks represent significant differences from the control (unpaired t-test, ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05).

Mentions: To verify whether the predicted genes participate in the activation of the proPO system, the expression pattern analyses were implemented on eight selected unigenes in larvae challenged by E. coli or S. aureus (at 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hr) using qRT-PCR methods (Figure 10). After E. coli infection, the significantly higher expression levels were observed at 4 hr after challenge for mdPAP1, mdPAP2, and mdproPO1, at 12 hr after challenge for mdPGRP-SC and mdPGRP-LE, and at 24 hr after challenge for mdPAP3, respectively. On the contrary, the mRNA levels of mdSerpin3 and mdSerpin11 decreased within 0 to 24 hr after challenge, especially at 24 hr after challenge with the most significant downregulation, as shown in Figure 10A. In comparison with E. coli challenge, the S. aureus challenge also resulted in similar expression patterns on these selected genes in larvae (Figure 10B). The similar qRT-PCR results were also observed in a previous report in which those speculated genes of PGRP, PAP, and proPO were all upregulated except Serpin, whose expression pattern was strangely upregulated in M. domestica larvae (Tang et al. 2014). In the present study, the expression profiles of the tested genes were mainly inconsistent with the activating progress of proPO system, which may reflect their functional diversifications in the activation of the proPO system in M. domestica.


Transcriptomic Analysis of Musca domestica to Reveal Key Genes of the Prophenoloxidase-Activating System.

Li D, Liang Y, Wang X, Wang L, Qi M, Yu Y, Luan Y - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Expression profiles of candidate genes. The expression profiles of selected genes were detected by qRT-PCR using the third instar larvae at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr) after challenge by E. coli (A) or S. aureus (B), in which actin acted as the quantity and quality control to normalize interest gene expression level. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of three repeat amplifications. The asterisks represent significant differences from the control (unpaired t-test, ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555219&req=5

fig10: Expression profiles of candidate genes. The expression profiles of selected genes were detected by qRT-PCR using the third instar larvae at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr) after challenge by E. coli (A) or S. aureus (B), in which actin acted as the quantity and quality control to normalize interest gene expression level. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of three repeat amplifications. The asterisks represent significant differences from the control (unpaired t-test, ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05).
Mentions: To verify whether the predicted genes participate in the activation of the proPO system, the expression pattern analyses were implemented on eight selected unigenes in larvae challenged by E. coli or S. aureus (at 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hr) using qRT-PCR methods (Figure 10). After E. coli infection, the significantly higher expression levels were observed at 4 hr after challenge for mdPAP1, mdPAP2, and mdproPO1, at 12 hr after challenge for mdPGRP-SC and mdPGRP-LE, and at 24 hr after challenge for mdPAP3, respectively. On the contrary, the mRNA levels of mdSerpin3 and mdSerpin11 decreased within 0 to 24 hr after challenge, especially at 24 hr after challenge with the most significant downregulation, as shown in Figure 10A. In comparison with E. coli challenge, the S. aureus challenge also resulted in similar expression patterns on these selected genes in larvae (Figure 10B). The similar qRT-PCR results were also observed in a previous report in which those speculated genes of PGRP, PAP, and proPO were all upregulated except Serpin, whose expression pattern was strangely upregulated in M. domestica larvae (Tang et al. 2014). In the present study, the expression profiles of the tested genes were mainly inconsistent with the activating progress of proPO system, which may reflect their functional diversifications in the activation of the proPO system in M. domestica.

Bottom Line: Of the 89,842 unigenes, based on a similarity search with known genes in other insects, 24 putative genes related to the proPO system were identified.Eight of the identified genes encoded for peptidoglycan recognition receptors, two encoded for prophenoloxidases, three encoded for prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes, and 11 encoded for serine proteinase inhibitors.Collectively, this study has provided the comprehensive transcriptomic data of an insect and some fundamental basis toward achieving understanding of the activation mechanisms and immune functions of the proPO system in M. domestica.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology Department, The School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, People's Republic of China chm_lidx@ujn.edu.cn.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus