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Functional assessments for decision-making regarding return to sports following ACL reconstruction. Part I: development of a new test battery.

Hildebrandt C, Müller L, Zisch B, Huber R, Fink C, Raschner C - Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast, high LSI values were found for the OL-CMJ (124 %), indicating a better performance of the dominant leg.Each test was found to be reliable and simple to perform.Test results from an ACL-reconstructed patient should be at least classified as a functionally average outcome to support a safe return to sports.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria, carolin.hildebrandt@uibk.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Return to activity remains the most common concern following an injury. To facilitate the decision regarding a patient's return to sport, we developed a standardized and easy-to-use test battery to enable an objective evaluation of knee function.

Methods: The test battery consisted of seven functional tests: the two-leg stability test, one-leg stability test (OL-ST), two-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), one-leg CMJ (OL-CMJ), plyometric jumps, speedy test and quick feet test. For each test, the reliability was determined based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. For all one-leg tests, the limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated.

Results: All tests showed a moderate-to-high reliability. Normative data from 434 participants were included in the analysis. The subjects were categorized according to age as follows: children (10-14 years), youth (15-19 years), young adults (20-29 years) and adults (30-50 years). The establishment of the functional test values allowed the classification into five normative categories. The LSI for the OL-ST (98 %) indicated a better performance of the non-dominant leg. In contrast, high LSI values were found for the OL-CMJ (124 %), indicating a better performance of the dominant leg.

Conclusion: Each test was found to be reliable and simple to perform. The better performance of the non-dominant leg in stability tasks must be considered when interpreting side-to-side differences. The established norm data from healthy individuals of each test battery represents an important basis for a clinical setting. Test results from an ACL-reconstructed patient should be at least classified as a functionally average outcome to support a safe return to sports.

Level of evidence: IV.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Limb symmetry index of all one-leg tests
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: Limb symmetry index of all one-leg tests

Mentions: For the data analyses, the subjects were categorized into the following 4 different groups according to their age: children (10–14 years), youth (15–19 years), young adults (20–29 years) and adults (30–50 years). The establishment of the functional test values allowed for the creation of five normative categories. For each test, normative data were defined according to age group and gender. As an example, Table 4 represents the five categories of normative data for the one-leg stability test. For all one-leg tests, reference values were obtained for the dominant and non-dominant legs. All categories were colour-coordinated to facilitate classification as very good (dark green), good (light green), average (yellow), weak (orange) and very weak (red). Figure 1 indicates the LSI of all one-leg tests. Results for the OL-ST revealed a score of 98 % in male children, indicating a better performance (less time) for the non-dominant leg. In the female young adult and male adult groups, no differences could be found between the dominant and non-dominant legs (LSI 100 %). Only female adults showed better performance in the dominant leg compared with the non-dominant leg, with an LSI of 107 %. Similar results, with small performance differences between the two legs, were reported for the OL-ST, where the LSI ranged from 101 to 104 %. In contrast, high values of the LSI were found for the OL-CMJ, indicating a better performance of the dominant leg (better jump height). Female children (118 %) and male adults (124 %), specifically, exhibited large side-to-side differences.Table 4


Functional assessments for decision-making regarding return to sports following ACL reconstruction. Part I: development of a new test battery.

Hildebrandt C, Müller L, Zisch B, Huber R, Fink C, Raschner C - Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2015)

Limb symmetry index of all one-leg tests
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555192&req=5

Fig1: Limb symmetry index of all one-leg tests
Mentions: For the data analyses, the subjects were categorized into the following 4 different groups according to their age: children (10–14 years), youth (15–19 years), young adults (20–29 years) and adults (30–50 years). The establishment of the functional test values allowed for the creation of five normative categories. For each test, normative data were defined according to age group and gender. As an example, Table 4 represents the five categories of normative data for the one-leg stability test. For all one-leg tests, reference values were obtained for the dominant and non-dominant legs. All categories were colour-coordinated to facilitate classification as very good (dark green), good (light green), average (yellow), weak (orange) and very weak (red). Figure 1 indicates the LSI of all one-leg tests. Results for the OL-ST revealed a score of 98 % in male children, indicating a better performance (less time) for the non-dominant leg. In the female young adult and male adult groups, no differences could be found between the dominant and non-dominant legs (LSI 100 %). Only female adults showed better performance in the dominant leg compared with the non-dominant leg, with an LSI of 107 %. Similar results, with small performance differences between the two legs, were reported for the OL-ST, where the LSI ranged from 101 to 104 %. In contrast, high values of the LSI were found for the OL-CMJ, indicating a better performance of the dominant leg (better jump height). Female children (118 %) and male adults (124 %), specifically, exhibited large side-to-side differences.Table 4

Bottom Line: In contrast, high LSI values were found for the OL-CMJ (124 %), indicating a better performance of the dominant leg.Each test was found to be reliable and simple to perform.Test results from an ACL-reconstructed patient should be at least classified as a functionally average outcome to support a safe return to sports.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria, carolin.hildebrandt@uibk.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Return to activity remains the most common concern following an injury. To facilitate the decision regarding a patient's return to sport, we developed a standardized and easy-to-use test battery to enable an objective evaluation of knee function.

Methods: The test battery consisted of seven functional tests: the two-leg stability test, one-leg stability test (OL-ST), two-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), one-leg CMJ (OL-CMJ), plyometric jumps, speedy test and quick feet test. For each test, the reliability was determined based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. For all one-leg tests, the limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated.

Results: All tests showed a moderate-to-high reliability. Normative data from 434 participants were included in the analysis. The subjects were categorized according to age as follows: children (10-14 years), youth (15-19 years), young adults (20-29 years) and adults (30-50 years). The establishment of the functional test values allowed the classification into five normative categories. The LSI for the OL-ST (98 %) indicated a better performance of the non-dominant leg. In contrast, high LSI values were found for the OL-CMJ (124 %), indicating a better performance of the dominant leg.

Conclusion: Each test was found to be reliable and simple to perform. The better performance of the non-dominant leg in stability tasks must be considered when interpreting side-to-side differences. The established norm data from healthy individuals of each test battery represents an important basis for a clinical setting. Test results from an ACL-reconstructed patient should be at least classified as a functionally average outcome to support a safe return to sports.

Level of evidence: IV.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus