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Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats.

Yusoff NA, Ahmad M, Al-Hindi B, Widyawati T, Yam MF, Mahmud R, Razak KN, Asmawi MZ - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE) of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect.One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM) in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL).Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. namy11_pha015@student.usm.my.

ABSTRACT
Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV) has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE) of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM) in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL). Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg) to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg), sucrose (4 g/kg) and starch (3 g/kg) loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of normal control (NC), acarbose, phloridzin and aqueous extract (AE) of NPV on postprandial blood glucose levels in oral sucrose tolerance test. Data is expressed as means ± S.E.M. (n = 6). ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001 vs. the NC group.
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nutrients-07-05320-f003: Effect of normal control (NC), acarbose, phloridzin and aqueous extract (AE) of NPV on postprandial blood glucose levels in oral sucrose tolerance test. Data is expressed as means ± S.E.M. (n = 6). ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001 vs. the NC group.

Mentions: Results depicted in Figure 3 show that, in the NC group, the blood glucose levels of the sucrose-loaded rats increased from 4.9 to 9.1 mmol/L 30 min after the oral administration of sucrose (4 g/kg), and then it decreased to 7.3 mmol/L and 6.1 mmol/L 60 and 120 min post-loading, respectively. As observed in OGTT, a dose of 500 mg/kg of AE significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated the elevated blood glucose levels 30 min after sucrose loading, with the percentage of blood glucose increment being 34.3% only, as compared with the initial glucose levels. Similar suppression pattern was observed in AE-treated group at a dose of 250 mg/kg. With further observation, an insignificant diminution in blood glucose levels was recorded as the levels decreased to 6.5 mmol/L and 5.5 mmol/L respectively 60 min and 120 min post-loading. On the other hand, as compared to the control group, 200 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of phloridzin and acarbose, respectively, significantly suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia until 60 min after sucrose-loading. Furthermore, acarbose continued to significantly suppress glucose levels until the end of the study. AUC readings reflected the recorded blood glucose levels, as lower AUC values indicated lower glucose concentrations in the blood, suggesting a stronger inhibitory effect of intestinal glucose absorption for the test substance. Hence, AUC trend was as follows: NC > AE 250 > AE 500 > Phloridzin > Acarbose (Table 1).


Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats.

Yusoff NA, Ahmad M, Al-Hindi B, Widyawati T, Yam MF, Mahmud R, Razak KN, Asmawi MZ - Nutrients (2015)

Effect of normal control (NC), acarbose, phloridzin and aqueous extract (AE) of NPV on postprandial blood glucose levels in oral sucrose tolerance test. Data is expressed as means ± S.E.M. (n = 6). ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001 vs. the NC group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555159&req=5

nutrients-07-05320-f003: Effect of normal control (NC), acarbose, phloridzin and aqueous extract (AE) of NPV on postprandial blood glucose levels in oral sucrose tolerance test. Data is expressed as means ± S.E.M. (n = 6). ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001 vs. the NC group.
Mentions: Results depicted in Figure 3 show that, in the NC group, the blood glucose levels of the sucrose-loaded rats increased from 4.9 to 9.1 mmol/L 30 min after the oral administration of sucrose (4 g/kg), and then it decreased to 7.3 mmol/L and 6.1 mmol/L 60 and 120 min post-loading, respectively. As observed in OGTT, a dose of 500 mg/kg of AE significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated the elevated blood glucose levels 30 min after sucrose loading, with the percentage of blood glucose increment being 34.3% only, as compared with the initial glucose levels. Similar suppression pattern was observed in AE-treated group at a dose of 250 mg/kg. With further observation, an insignificant diminution in blood glucose levels was recorded as the levels decreased to 6.5 mmol/L and 5.5 mmol/L respectively 60 min and 120 min post-loading. On the other hand, as compared to the control group, 200 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of phloridzin and acarbose, respectively, significantly suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia until 60 min after sucrose-loading. Furthermore, acarbose continued to significantly suppress glucose levels until the end of the study. AUC readings reflected the recorded blood glucose levels, as lower AUC values indicated lower glucose concentrations in the blood, suggesting a stronger inhibitory effect of intestinal glucose absorption for the test substance. Hence, AUC trend was as follows: NC > AE 250 > AE 500 > Phloridzin > Acarbose (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE) of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect.One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM) in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL).Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. namy11_pha015@student.usm.my.

ABSTRACT
Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV) has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE) of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM) in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL). Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg) to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg), sucrose (4 g/kg) and starch (3 g/kg) loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus