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Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation.

Skulas-Ray AC, Flock MR, Richter CK, Harris WS, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA).In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently.Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. aus164@psu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m2, TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m2, TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatterplots for regression analyses of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) vs. red blood cell (RBC) % docosapentaenoic acid (DPA n-3) content at baseline (prior to supplementation). (A) RBC n-3 DPA values in Study 1 explained 36% of the variability in serum CRP using a cubic fit (y = 32.43 − 3236x + 109213x2 − 12221024x3); (B) In Study 2, RBC n-3 DPA values were not significantly related to serum CRP.
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nutrients-07-05291-f003: Scatterplots for regression analyses of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) vs. red blood cell (RBC) % docosapentaenoic acid (DPA n-3) content at baseline (prior to supplementation). (A) RBC n-3 DPA values in Study 1 explained 36% of the variability in serum CRP using a cubic fit (y = 32.43 − 3236x + 109213x2 − 12221024x3); (B) In Study 2, RBC n-3 DPA values were not significantly related to serum CRP.

Mentions: In Study 1, baseline RBC n-3 DPA content and serum CRP concentrations were also inversely related with a cubic fit (p < 0.001) (Figure 3A). This model fit suggests a threshold for effects, such that RBC n-3 DPA is inversely related to CRP at n-3 DPA values <2% and/or higher CRP values. For n-3 DPA values >2%, there does not appear to be any predictive value of RBC n-3 DPA content with respect to CRP. There was no significant relationship between baseline RBC n-3 DPA and serum CRP in Study 2 (Figure 3B). No significant associations were found between RBC n-3 DPA content and the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in Study 1 or Study 2 (data not shown).


Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation.

Skulas-Ray AC, Flock MR, Richter CK, Harris WS, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM - Nutrients (2015)

Scatterplots for regression analyses of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) vs. red blood cell (RBC) % docosapentaenoic acid (DPA n-3) content at baseline (prior to supplementation). (A) RBC n-3 DPA values in Study 1 explained 36% of the variability in serum CRP using a cubic fit (y = 32.43 − 3236x + 109213x2 − 12221024x3); (B) In Study 2, RBC n-3 DPA values were not significantly related to serum CRP.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555130&req=5

nutrients-07-05291-f003: Scatterplots for regression analyses of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) vs. red blood cell (RBC) % docosapentaenoic acid (DPA n-3) content at baseline (prior to supplementation). (A) RBC n-3 DPA values in Study 1 explained 36% of the variability in serum CRP using a cubic fit (y = 32.43 − 3236x + 109213x2 − 12221024x3); (B) In Study 2, RBC n-3 DPA values were not significantly related to serum CRP.
Mentions: In Study 1, baseline RBC n-3 DPA content and serum CRP concentrations were also inversely related with a cubic fit (p < 0.001) (Figure 3A). This model fit suggests a threshold for effects, such that RBC n-3 DPA is inversely related to CRP at n-3 DPA values <2% and/or higher CRP values. For n-3 DPA values >2%, there does not appear to be any predictive value of RBC n-3 DPA content with respect to CRP. There was no significant relationship between baseline RBC n-3 DPA and serum CRP in Study 2 (Figure 3B). No significant associations were found between RBC n-3 DPA content and the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in Study 1 or Study 2 (data not shown).

Bottom Line: We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA).In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently.Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. aus164@psu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m2, TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m2, TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus