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Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing.

Valenzuela R, Bascuñán K, Chamorro R, Barrera C, Sandoval J, Puigrredon C, Parraguez G, Orellana P, Gonzalez V, Valenzuela A - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits.The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA.AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Independencia, Santiago 8380453, Chile. rvalenzuelab@med.uchile.cl.

ABSTRACT
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22-35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total fatty acid composition of breast milk from mothers during nursing. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) (A); Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (B); Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (C); Total n-6 PUFA (D); Total n-3 PUFA (E). Data are expressed as g fatty acid per 100 g FAME and represent the mean ± SD for n = 21 women (control group) and n = 19 (chia group). Statistical significance (p < 0.05); *: indicates significantly different when comparing the chia group with the control group for each month of nursing (t-test) and for all months of nursing (One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). SFA correspond to 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0 and 22:0, 24:0. MUFA correspond to 14:1 n-5, 16:1 n-7 and 18:1, n-9. PUFA correspond to 18:2 n-6, 18:3 n-3, 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3.
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nutrients-07-05289-f001: Total fatty acid composition of breast milk from mothers during nursing. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) (A); Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (B); Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (C); Total n-6 PUFA (D); Total n-3 PUFA (E). Data are expressed as g fatty acid per 100 g FAME and represent the mean ± SD for n = 21 women (control group) and n = 19 (chia group). Statistical significance (p < 0.05); *: indicates significantly different when comparing the chia group with the control group for each month of nursing (t-test) and for all months of nursing (One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). SFA correspond to 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0 and 22:0, 24:0. MUFA correspond to 14:1 n-5, 16:1 n-7 and 18:1, n-9. PUFA correspond to 18:2 n-6, 18:3 n-3, 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3.

Mentions: Total SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and total n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA of breast milk are shown in Figure 1A–E. Total SFA (Figure 1A), total MUFA (Figure 1B) and total PUFA (Figure 1C) were not modified during the dietary intervention with chia oil when compared to the control group. Total n-6 PUFA (Figure 1D) were significantly reduced and total n-3 PUFA (Figure 1E) were significantly increased after chia oil intake. Figure 2 shows the individual modification of the most relevant n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio after chia oil intake. LA was significantly reduced in the chia group (Figure 2A) whereas ALA was significantly increased (Figure 2B) during all the periods of chia oil intake. AA (Figure 2C) and EPA (Figure 2D) were not modified in these groups. However, DHA (Figure 2E) was significantly increased in the chia group only during the first, second and third month of nursing, returning to values similar to the control group after the initial three-month period. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (Figure 2F) was significantly reduced in the chia group during the six months of nursing.


Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing.

Valenzuela R, Bascuñán K, Chamorro R, Barrera C, Sandoval J, Puigrredon C, Parraguez G, Orellana P, Gonzalez V, Valenzuela A - Nutrients (2015)

Total fatty acid composition of breast milk from mothers during nursing. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) (A); Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (B); Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (C); Total n-6 PUFA (D); Total n-3 PUFA (E). Data are expressed as g fatty acid per 100 g FAME and represent the mean ± SD for n = 21 women (control group) and n = 19 (chia group). Statistical significance (p < 0.05); *: indicates significantly different when comparing the chia group with the control group for each month of nursing (t-test) and for all months of nursing (One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). SFA correspond to 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0 and 22:0, 24:0. MUFA correspond to 14:1 n-5, 16:1 n-7 and 18:1, n-9. PUFA correspond to 18:2 n-6, 18:3 n-3, 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555128&req=5

nutrients-07-05289-f001: Total fatty acid composition of breast milk from mothers during nursing. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) (A); Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (B); Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (C); Total n-6 PUFA (D); Total n-3 PUFA (E). Data are expressed as g fatty acid per 100 g FAME and represent the mean ± SD for n = 21 women (control group) and n = 19 (chia group). Statistical significance (p < 0.05); *: indicates significantly different when comparing the chia group with the control group for each month of nursing (t-test) and for all months of nursing (One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). SFA correspond to 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0 and 22:0, 24:0. MUFA correspond to 14:1 n-5, 16:1 n-7 and 18:1, n-9. PUFA correspond to 18:2 n-6, 18:3 n-3, 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3.
Mentions: Total SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and total n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA of breast milk are shown in Figure 1A–E. Total SFA (Figure 1A), total MUFA (Figure 1B) and total PUFA (Figure 1C) were not modified during the dietary intervention with chia oil when compared to the control group. Total n-6 PUFA (Figure 1D) were significantly reduced and total n-3 PUFA (Figure 1E) were significantly increased after chia oil intake. Figure 2 shows the individual modification of the most relevant n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio after chia oil intake. LA was significantly reduced in the chia group (Figure 2A) whereas ALA was significantly increased (Figure 2B) during all the periods of chia oil intake. AA (Figure 2C) and EPA (Figure 2D) were not modified in these groups. However, DHA (Figure 2E) was significantly increased in the chia group only during the first, second and third month of nursing, returning to values similar to the control group after the initial three-month period. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (Figure 2F) was significantly reduced in the chia group during the six months of nursing.

Bottom Line: Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits.The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA.AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Independencia, Santiago 8380453, Chile. rvalenzuelab@med.uchile.cl.

ABSTRACT
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22-35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus