Limits...
Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

Wan X, Bi J, Gao X, Tian F, Wang X, Li N, Li J - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear.Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001).The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. van395412495@sina.cn.

ABSTRACT
Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2), and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05), loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001). The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05). Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportion of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes in the pyrosequencing analysis of ileal wash samples at the phylum level. (A) Bacteroidetes and (B) Tenericutes. Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). **p < 0.001 vs. chow. ##p < 0.001 vs. TPN. EN: enteral nutrition; TPN: total parenteral nutrition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555127&req=5

nutrients-07-05288-f007: Proportion of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes in the pyrosequencing analysis of ileal wash samples at the phylum level. (A) Bacteroidetes and (B) Tenericutes. Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). **p < 0.001 vs. chow. ##p < 0.001 vs. TPN. EN: enteral nutrition; TPN: total parenteral nutrition.

Mentions: 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was performed to assess changes in the ileum microbiota in each group. In total, 2,932,800 filtered reads were obtained from the chow (466,254), 10% EN (470,883), 20% EN (325,621), 40% EN (580,420), 60% EN (511,710), and TPN (577,912) groups (Table S4). The microbial composition was analyzed at the phylum level. Rarefaction curves are shown in Figure S1. Although the diversity of each sample varied, the curves were smooth and flattened. The numbers of OTUs were always >1000. The Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indices (Figure S2, Figure S3, Figure S4) indicated that the sequencing quantity of each sample was capable of sufficiently describing the composition of bacteria. As shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7, the microbiota in the TPN group contained a higher percentage of Bacteroidetes (p < 0.001) and Tenericutes (p < 0.001) than those in the chow group. The percentage of Bacteroidetes in the 10% EN group was lower than that in the TPN group (p < 0.001), but still higher than the chow group (p < 0.05). With an EN dose of 20%, the observed percentage of Bacteroidetes became similar to that in the chow group, while it was significantly lower than those in TPN and 10% EN (p < 0.05 for each group). The percentage of Tenericutes in microbiota was effectively maintained when partial EN was initiated compared with the chow group, and the amount of EN or chow seldom impacted on the percentage of Tenericutes. However, the percentage of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria did not change significantly when a dose of EN was administered to mice. Detailed results can be found in Table S5. We also analyzed microbial composition at the genus level, but were unable to identify any meaningful results.


Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

Wan X, Bi J, Gao X, Tian F, Wang X, Li N, Li J - Nutrients (2015)

Proportion of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes in the pyrosequencing analysis of ileal wash samples at the phylum level. (A) Bacteroidetes and (B) Tenericutes. Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). **p < 0.001 vs. chow. ##p < 0.001 vs. TPN. EN: enteral nutrition; TPN: total parenteral nutrition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555127&req=5

nutrients-07-05288-f007: Proportion of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes in the pyrosequencing analysis of ileal wash samples at the phylum level. (A) Bacteroidetes and (B) Tenericutes. Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). **p < 0.001 vs. chow. ##p < 0.001 vs. TPN. EN: enteral nutrition; TPN: total parenteral nutrition.
Mentions: 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was performed to assess changes in the ileum microbiota in each group. In total, 2,932,800 filtered reads were obtained from the chow (466,254), 10% EN (470,883), 20% EN (325,621), 40% EN (580,420), 60% EN (511,710), and TPN (577,912) groups (Table S4). The microbial composition was analyzed at the phylum level. Rarefaction curves are shown in Figure S1. Although the diversity of each sample varied, the curves were smooth and flattened. The numbers of OTUs were always >1000. The Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indices (Figure S2, Figure S3, Figure S4) indicated that the sequencing quantity of each sample was capable of sufficiently describing the composition of bacteria. As shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7, the microbiota in the TPN group contained a higher percentage of Bacteroidetes (p < 0.001) and Tenericutes (p < 0.001) than those in the chow group. The percentage of Bacteroidetes in the 10% EN group was lower than that in the TPN group (p < 0.001), but still higher than the chow group (p < 0.05). With an EN dose of 20%, the observed percentage of Bacteroidetes became similar to that in the chow group, while it was significantly lower than those in TPN and 10% EN (p < 0.05 for each group). The percentage of Tenericutes in microbiota was effectively maintained when partial EN was initiated compared with the chow group, and the amount of EN or chow seldom impacted on the percentage of Tenericutes. However, the percentage of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria did not change significantly when a dose of EN was administered to mice. Detailed results can be found in Table S5. We also analyzed microbial composition at the genus level, but were unable to identify any meaningful results.

Bottom Line: However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear.Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001).The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. van395412495@sina.cn.

ABSTRACT
Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2), and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05), loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001). The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05). Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus