Limits...
The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

Walker CG, West AL, Browning LM, Madden J, Gambell JM, Jebb SA, Calder PC - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC.Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group).We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK. celia.walker@mrc-hnr.cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean change in key fatty acids in response to 12 months supplementation of EPA + DHA equivalent to 0, 1, 2 or 4 portions of fish per week in different plasma and blood cell pools. The observed mean ± SE change from baseline in the fatty acids identified as important in relation to change in EPA + DHA in the multinomial regression models in (a) Plasma PC; (b) Plasma CE; (c) Plasma TAG; (d) RBC; (e) PLAT; (f) MNC. The effect of dose was tested by linear regression models for each fatty acid. Each model was tested with and without age and sex which were included as covariates if significant. Change in dietary SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA where relevant were also tested to determine if change in diet influenced the change in fatty acids with EPA + DHA dose. Significant effects of dose detected in these models are shown as: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.0001; † Effect of dose (p = 0.05) only when taking into account the change in dietary n-6 PUFA from baseline to 12 months; ‡ Effect of dose (p < 0.05) is no longer significant when taking into account the effect of change in dietary MUFA.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555124&req=5

nutrients-07-05285-f002: Mean change in key fatty acids in response to 12 months supplementation of EPA + DHA equivalent to 0, 1, 2 or 4 portions of fish per week in different plasma and blood cell pools. The observed mean ± SE change from baseline in the fatty acids identified as important in relation to change in EPA + DHA in the multinomial regression models in (a) Plasma PC; (b) Plasma CE; (c) Plasma TAG; (d) RBC; (e) PLAT; (f) MNC. The effect of dose was tested by linear regression models for each fatty acid. Each model was tested with and without age and sex which were included as covariates if significant. Change in dietary SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA where relevant were also tested to determine if change in diet influenced the change in fatty acids with EPA + DHA dose. Significant effects of dose detected in these models are shown as: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.0001; † Effect of dose (p = 0.05) only when taking into account the change in dietary n-6 PUFA from baseline to 12 months; ‡ Effect of dose (p < 0.05) is no longer significant when taking into account the effect of change in dietary MUFA.

Mentions: The effect of the dose of EPA + DHA supplementation on the change in FA identified by the multinomial models is shown for each lipid pool in Figure 2. In plasma PC (Figure 2a) there was a clear dose response such that OA and three n-6 PUFAs (LA, di-homo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6 and AA) were decreased in relation to an increasing dose (and increasing incorporation) of EPA + DHA. In plasma CE (Figure 2b) the n-6 PUFAs LA, γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) and DGLA (when taking into account the change in dietary n-6 PUFA) decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing EPA + DHA. There was a dose-dependent decrease in OA, but this was not seen when changes in dietary MUFA intake were accounted for. PA was also increased in a dose-dependent manner in CE. In plasma TAG (Figure 2c) the only dose-dependent decreases were in MUFA (palmitoleic acid (POA; 16:1n-7) and OA). In RBC there was a significant dose-response decrease in the n-6 PUFAs DGLA, AA and docosatetraenoic acid (DTA; 22:4) (Figure 2d). In PLAT DGLA was decreased and there was also a trend (p = 0.09) for DTA to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 2e). In both PLAT and MNC OA increased, but the magnitude of the increase was inversely proportional to dose. There was also a pattern for LA to be increased in MNC and PLAT in an inverse dose-responsive manner, although this was not significant (Figure 2d,e). DPA was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the four pools in which it was identified as an important contributor to change in EPA and DHA.


The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

Walker CG, West AL, Browning LM, Madden J, Gambell JM, Jebb SA, Calder PC - Nutrients (2015)

Mean change in key fatty acids in response to 12 months supplementation of EPA + DHA equivalent to 0, 1, 2 or 4 portions of fish per week in different plasma and blood cell pools. The observed mean ± SE change from baseline in the fatty acids identified as important in relation to change in EPA + DHA in the multinomial regression models in (a) Plasma PC; (b) Plasma CE; (c) Plasma TAG; (d) RBC; (e) PLAT; (f) MNC. The effect of dose was tested by linear regression models for each fatty acid. Each model was tested with and without age and sex which were included as covariates if significant. Change in dietary SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA where relevant were also tested to determine if change in diet influenced the change in fatty acids with EPA + DHA dose. Significant effects of dose detected in these models are shown as: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.0001; † Effect of dose (p = 0.05) only when taking into account the change in dietary n-6 PUFA from baseline to 12 months; ‡ Effect of dose (p < 0.05) is no longer significant when taking into account the effect of change in dietary MUFA.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555124&req=5

nutrients-07-05285-f002: Mean change in key fatty acids in response to 12 months supplementation of EPA + DHA equivalent to 0, 1, 2 or 4 portions of fish per week in different plasma and blood cell pools. The observed mean ± SE change from baseline in the fatty acids identified as important in relation to change in EPA + DHA in the multinomial regression models in (a) Plasma PC; (b) Plasma CE; (c) Plasma TAG; (d) RBC; (e) PLAT; (f) MNC. The effect of dose was tested by linear regression models for each fatty acid. Each model was tested with and without age and sex which were included as covariates if significant. Change in dietary SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA where relevant were also tested to determine if change in diet influenced the change in fatty acids with EPA + DHA dose. Significant effects of dose detected in these models are shown as: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.0001; † Effect of dose (p = 0.05) only when taking into account the change in dietary n-6 PUFA from baseline to 12 months; ‡ Effect of dose (p < 0.05) is no longer significant when taking into account the effect of change in dietary MUFA.
Mentions: The effect of the dose of EPA + DHA supplementation on the change in FA identified by the multinomial models is shown for each lipid pool in Figure 2. In plasma PC (Figure 2a) there was a clear dose response such that OA and three n-6 PUFAs (LA, di-homo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6 and AA) were decreased in relation to an increasing dose (and increasing incorporation) of EPA + DHA. In plasma CE (Figure 2b) the n-6 PUFAs LA, γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) and DGLA (when taking into account the change in dietary n-6 PUFA) decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing EPA + DHA. There was a dose-dependent decrease in OA, but this was not seen when changes in dietary MUFA intake were accounted for. PA was also increased in a dose-dependent manner in CE. In plasma TAG (Figure 2c) the only dose-dependent decreases were in MUFA (palmitoleic acid (POA; 16:1n-7) and OA). In RBC there was a significant dose-response decrease in the n-6 PUFAs DGLA, AA and docosatetraenoic acid (DTA; 22:4) (Figure 2d). In PLAT DGLA was decreased and there was also a trend (p = 0.09) for DTA to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 2e). In both PLAT and MNC OA increased, but the magnitude of the increase was inversely proportional to dose. There was also a pattern for LA to be increased in MNC and PLAT in an inverse dose-responsive manner, although this was not significant (Figure 2d,e). DPA was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the four pools in which it was identified as an important contributor to change in EPA and DHA.

Bottom Line: Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC.Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group).We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK. celia.walker@mrc-hnr.cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus