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Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors.

Wen T, Hsieh S - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes.The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present.Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Electrophysiology Lab: Control, Aging, Sleep, and Emotion, Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan ; Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor's response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bar graph showing reaction time data of congruency effects in believed biological co-actor, computer co-actor, single Go/Nogo, and standard Simon conditions. Reaction times were slower in the standard Simon task. Significant differences between incongruent and congruent conditions were observed in the believed biological co-actor and computer co-actor conditions, but not in the single Go/Nogo condition. Error bars depict the standard error.
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Figure 1: Bar graph showing reaction time data of congruency effects in believed biological co-actor, computer co-actor, single Go/Nogo, and standard Simon conditions. Reaction times were slower in the standard Simon task. Significant differences between incongruent and congruent conditions were observed in the believed biological co-actor and computer co-actor conditions, but not in the single Go/Nogo condition. Error bars depict the standard error.

Mentions: Given that the Simon effect in the standard Simon condition is much larger than the effects in the other conditions, the inclusion of these data may be sufficient to drive the main effect of congruency and the interaction with condition, a separate 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted with only the three single hand conditions (biological co-actor, computer co-actor, single Go/Nogo). There were no main effects for condition [F(2,70) = 0.49, p = 0.62], there was a main effect for congruency [F(1,35) = 10.20, p = 0.003], and a near significant interaction between condition and congruency [F(2,70) = 3.00, p = 0.056]. Next, post hoc analyses were performed; simple main effects of the condition × congruency interaction showed a significant difference between incongruent and congruent trials in the biological co-actor, and computer co-actor tasks [F(1,105) = 6.34, p = 0.01; F(1,105) = 14.59, p < 0.001], but no congruency effects in the single Go/Nogo task [F(1,105) = 1.42, p = 0.24]. Results are shown in Figure 1.


Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors.

Wen T, Hsieh S - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bar graph showing reaction time data of congruency effects in believed biological co-actor, computer co-actor, single Go/Nogo, and standard Simon conditions. Reaction times were slower in the standard Simon task. Significant differences between incongruent and congruent conditions were observed in the believed biological co-actor and computer co-actor conditions, but not in the single Go/Nogo condition. Error bars depict the standard error.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555067&req=5

Figure 1: Bar graph showing reaction time data of congruency effects in believed biological co-actor, computer co-actor, single Go/Nogo, and standard Simon conditions. Reaction times were slower in the standard Simon task. Significant differences between incongruent and congruent conditions were observed in the believed biological co-actor and computer co-actor conditions, but not in the single Go/Nogo condition. Error bars depict the standard error.
Mentions: Given that the Simon effect in the standard Simon condition is much larger than the effects in the other conditions, the inclusion of these data may be sufficient to drive the main effect of congruency and the interaction with condition, a separate 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted with only the three single hand conditions (biological co-actor, computer co-actor, single Go/Nogo). There were no main effects for condition [F(2,70) = 0.49, p = 0.62], there was a main effect for congruency [F(1,35) = 10.20, p = 0.003], and a near significant interaction between condition and congruency [F(2,70) = 3.00, p = 0.056]. Next, post hoc analyses were performed; simple main effects of the condition × congruency interaction showed a significant difference between incongruent and congruent trials in the biological co-actor, and computer co-actor tasks [F(1,105) = 6.34, p = 0.01; F(1,105) = 14.59, p < 0.001], but no congruency effects in the single Go/Nogo task [F(1,105) = 1.42, p = 0.24]. Results are shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes.The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present.Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Electrophysiology Lab: Control, Aging, Sleep, and Emotion, Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan ; Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor's response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus