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Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

Matsumoto Y, Matsumoto CS, Wakuda R, Ichihara S, Mizunami M - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets.Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor.Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University Sapporo, Japan ; Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Ichikawa, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maxillary palpi extension response (MER) of the cricket. (A) When a cricket is stationary, its maxillary palpi are typically held loosely beneath the mouthparts (red circles). (B) Upon presenting a drop of water to an antenna of the cricket, the cricket extended (red circles) and vigorously swung its maxillary palpi while raising its head.
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Figure 2: Maxillary palpi extension response (MER) of the cricket. (A) When a cricket is stationary, its maxillary palpi are typically held loosely beneath the mouthparts (red circles). (B) Upon presenting a drop of water to an antenna of the cricket, the cricket extended (red circles) and vigorously swung its maxillary palpi while raising its head.

Mentions: Maxillary palpi of crickets are equipped with a number of olfactory receptors, contact chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors, and crickets use these receptors to locate nearby food or water sources (Klein, 1981). When crickets are stationary, their maxillary palpi are usually held loosely beneath the mouthpart (Figure 2A). Upon application of water to the antennae, crickets extended and vigorously swung their maxillary palpi (Figure 2B). This response, which we term maxillary palpi extension response (MER), accompanied raising of the head and extension and swinging of the labial palpi and was immediately followed by vigorous swinging of the antennae, protraction of the mouth forward and upward, and frequent initiation of locomotor actions (Supplementary Movie 1). In short, MER is an initial phase of exploratory behavior in search for water or odor source.


Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

Matsumoto Y, Matsumoto CS, Wakuda R, Ichihara S, Mizunami M - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Maxillary palpi extension response (MER) of the cricket. (A) When a cricket is stationary, its maxillary palpi are typically held loosely beneath the mouthparts (red circles). (B) Upon presenting a drop of water to an antenna of the cricket, the cricket extended (red circles) and vigorously swung its maxillary palpi while raising its head.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555048&req=5

Figure 2: Maxillary palpi extension response (MER) of the cricket. (A) When a cricket is stationary, its maxillary palpi are typically held loosely beneath the mouthparts (red circles). (B) Upon presenting a drop of water to an antenna of the cricket, the cricket extended (red circles) and vigorously swung its maxillary palpi while raising its head.
Mentions: Maxillary palpi of crickets are equipped with a number of olfactory receptors, contact chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors, and crickets use these receptors to locate nearby food or water sources (Klein, 1981). When crickets are stationary, their maxillary palpi are usually held loosely beneath the mouthpart (Figure 2A). Upon application of water to the antennae, crickets extended and vigorously swung their maxillary palpi (Figure 2B). This response, which we term maxillary palpi extension response (MER), accompanied raising of the head and extension and swinging of the labial palpi and was immediately followed by vigorous swinging of the antennae, protraction of the mouth forward and upward, and frequent initiation of locomotor actions (Supplementary Movie 1). In short, MER is an initial phase of exploratory behavior in search for water or odor source.

Bottom Line: In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets.Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor.Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University Sapporo, Japan ; Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Ichikawa, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus