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The time course and characteristics of procedural learning in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

Adini Y, Bonneh YS, Komm S, Deutsch L, Israeli D - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: By analyzing the data according to its spatial-position and temporal-order components, we provide evidence for two types of learning that could differentiate the groups: while the learning of the slower, severe group was dominated by statistical learning, the control group moved from a fast learning phase of statistical-related performance to subsequence learning (chunking).Our findings oppose the naïve assumption that a similar gain of speed reflects a similar learning process; they indicate that the slower performance reflects the activation of a different motor plan than does the faster performance; and demonstrate that statistical learning and subsequence learning are two successive stages in implicit sequence learning, with chunks inferred from prior statistical computations.We suggest that this slow learning rate and the associated slow performance contribute to their deficit in developing sequence-specific learning by setting a temporal constraint on developing higher order associations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Institute for Vision Research Kiron, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in some types of procedural learning. Several mechanisms contribute to this learning in healthy individuals, including statistical and sequence-learning. To find preserved and impaired learning mechanisms in schizophrenia, we studied the time course and characteristics of implicitly introduced sequence-learning (SRT task) in 15 schizophrenia patients (seven mild and eight severe) and nine healthy controls, in short sessions over multiple days (5-22). The data show speed gains of similar magnitude for all groups, but the groups differed in overall speed and in the characteristics of the learning. By analyzing the data according to its spatial-position and temporal-order components, we provide evidence for two types of learning that could differentiate the groups: while the learning of the slower, severe group was dominated by statistical learning, the control group moved from a fast learning phase of statistical-related performance to subsequence learning (chunking). Our findings oppose the naïve assumption that a similar gain of speed reflects a similar learning process; they indicate that the slower performance reflects the activation of a different motor plan than does the faster performance; and demonstrate that statistical learning and subsequence learning are two successive stages in implicit sequence learning, with chunks inferred from prior statistical computations. Our results indicate that statistical learning is intact in patients with schizophrenia, but is slower to develop in the severe patients. We suggest that this slow learning rate and the associated slow performance contribute to their deficit in developing sequence-specific learning by setting a temporal constraint on developing higher order associations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The average (across the first 10 days of practice, across subjects) of the within-day and the between-days RT-gains for the three groups. Negative numbers imply “forgetting.” The average time that passed between consecutive practice days was 10.5±2, 6+0.6, and 5±1, days for the CONT, MILD, and SEV groups, respectively.
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Figure 4: The average (across the first 10 days of practice, across subjects) of the within-day and the between-days RT-gains for the three groups. Negative numbers imply “forgetting.” The average time that passed between consecutive practice days was 10.5±2, 6+0.6, and 5±1, days for the CONT, MILD, and SEV groups, respectively.

Mentions: To analyze the online (within session) and offline (between days) practice effects of the groups, we defined: (i) within-day RT gain (within-day) as the difference between the LSmean RT of the first and the last block on a given practice day, averaged across subjects; (ii) between-day RT gains (between-days) as the difference between the LSmean RT of the last block on a given day, and the LSmean RT of the first block on the following practice day. Figure 4 shows the average (across the first 10 days of practice) of the within-day and the between-day RT gains for the three groups.


The time course and characteristics of procedural learning in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

Adini Y, Bonneh YS, Komm S, Deutsch L, Israeli D - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

The average (across the first 10 days of practice, across subjects) of the within-day and the between-days RT-gains for the three groups. Negative numbers imply “forgetting.” The average time that passed between consecutive practice days was 10.5±2, 6+0.6, and 5±1, days for the CONT, MILD, and SEV groups, respectively.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555022&req=5

Figure 4: The average (across the first 10 days of practice, across subjects) of the within-day and the between-days RT-gains for the three groups. Negative numbers imply “forgetting.” The average time that passed between consecutive practice days was 10.5±2, 6+0.6, and 5±1, days for the CONT, MILD, and SEV groups, respectively.
Mentions: To analyze the online (within session) and offline (between days) practice effects of the groups, we defined: (i) within-day RT gain (within-day) as the difference between the LSmean RT of the first and the last block on a given practice day, averaged across subjects; (ii) between-day RT gains (between-days) as the difference between the LSmean RT of the last block on a given day, and the LSmean RT of the first block on the following practice day. Figure 4 shows the average (across the first 10 days of practice) of the within-day and the between-day RT gains for the three groups.

Bottom Line: By analyzing the data according to its spatial-position and temporal-order components, we provide evidence for two types of learning that could differentiate the groups: while the learning of the slower, severe group was dominated by statistical learning, the control group moved from a fast learning phase of statistical-related performance to subsequence learning (chunking).Our findings oppose the naïve assumption that a similar gain of speed reflects a similar learning process; they indicate that the slower performance reflects the activation of a different motor plan than does the faster performance; and demonstrate that statistical learning and subsequence learning are two successive stages in implicit sequence learning, with chunks inferred from prior statistical computations.We suggest that this slow learning rate and the associated slow performance contribute to their deficit in developing sequence-specific learning by setting a temporal constraint on developing higher order associations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Institute for Vision Research Kiron, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in some types of procedural learning. Several mechanisms contribute to this learning in healthy individuals, including statistical and sequence-learning. To find preserved and impaired learning mechanisms in schizophrenia, we studied the time course and characteristics of implicitly introduced sequence-learning (SRT task) in 15 schizophrenia patients (seven mild and eight severe) and nine healthy controls, in short sessions over multiple days (5-22). The data show speed gains of similar magnitude for all groups, but the groups differed in overall speed and in the characteristics of the learning. By analyzing the data according to its spatial-position and temporal-order components, we provide evidence for two types of learning that could differentiate the groups: while the learning of the slower, severe group was dominated by statistical learning, the control group moved from a fast learning phase of statistical-related performance to subsequence learning (chunking). Our findings oppose the naïve assumption that a similar gain of speed reflects a similar learning process; they indicate that the slower performance reflects the activation of a different motor plan than does the faster performance; and demonstrate that statistical learning and subsequence learning are two successive stages in implicit sequence learning, with chunks inferred from prior statistical computations. Our results indicate that statistical learning is intact in patients with schizophrenia, but is slower to develop in the severe patients. We suggest that this slow learning rate and the associated slow performance contribute to their deficit in developing sequence-specific learning by setting a temporal constraint on developing higher order associations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus