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Changes in retinal microvascular diameter in patients with diabetes.

da Silva AV, Gouvea SA, da Silva AP, Bortolon S, Rodrigues AN, Abreu GR, Herkenhoff FL - Int J Gen Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The ratio of arteriole diameter to venule diameter was calculated.The retinal microvasculature pattern was related to clinical and biochemical parameters.Therefore, the early assessment of retinal microvascular changes is possible prior to the onset of diabetic retinopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Diabetic retinopathy is the main microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the retinal microvasculature pattern and analyze the influence of blood glucose level and the duration of diabetes mellitus on the retinal microvasculature.

Methods: Two groups were analyzed: patients with diabetes (N=26) and patients without diabetes, ie, controls (N=26). A quantitative semiautomated method analyzed retinal microvasculature. The diameters of arterioles and venules were measured. The total numbers of arterioles and venules were counted. The ratio of arteriole diameter to venule diameter was calculated. The retinal microvasculature pattern was related to clinical and biochemical parameters.

Results: Patients with diabetes exhibited larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant of the retina compared to the lower temporal quadrant (124.85±38.03 µm vs 102.92±15.69 µm; P<0.01). Patients with diabetes for 5 or more years had larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant than patients without diabetes (141.62±44.44 vs 112.58±32.11 µm; P<0.05). The degree of venodilation in the upper temporal quadrant was positively correlated with blood glucose level and the estimated duration of diabetes mellitus.

Interpretation and conclusion: The employed quantitative method demonstrated that patients with diabetes exhibited venule dilation in the upper temporal quadrant, and the duration of diabetes mellitus was positively correlated with blood glucose level. Therefore, the early assessment of retinal microvascular changes is possible prior to the onset of diabetic retinopathy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Definition of the optical disk, the greater circle and quadrants of the retina for quantification of the arteriole (A) and venule (V) microvasculature.
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f1-ijgm-8-267: Definition of the optical disk, the greater circle and quadrants of the retina for quantification of the arteriole (A) and venule (V) microvasculature.

Mentions: The program drew a circle with a radius three times that of the optic disk, which is similar to the procedure of Stanton et al.14 The observer marked the edges of retinal vessels around the greater circle using a caliper and measured in micron (µm). Two perpendicular lines were drawn through the center of the optical disk to divide the retina into quadrants (Figure 1). Vessels with diameters smaller than 30 µm were excluded due to the lack of precision in edge definition. The following variables were recorded: total number of arterioles (TNA); total number of venules (TNV); arteriole diameter (AD), defined as the sum of diameters for all arterioles; sum of arteriole diameters in the upper temporal quadrant (ADUT); sum of arteriole diameters in the lower temporal quadrant (ADLT); sum of arteriole diameters in the upper nasal quadrant (ADUN); sum of arteriole diameters in the lower nasal quadrant (ADLN); venule diameter (VD), defined as the sum of diameters for all venules; sum of venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant (VDUT); sum of venule diameters in the lower temporal quadrant (VDLT); sum of venule diameters in the upper nasal quadrant (VDUN); sum of venule diameters in the lower nasal quadrant (VDLN); arteriole diameter/venule diameter ratio, obtained by dividing these two variables (AD/VD ratio); the AD/VD ratio in the upper temporal quadrant (AD/VD ratio UT); AD/VD ratio in the lower temporal quadrant (AD/VD ratio LT); AD/VD ratio in the upper nasal quadrant (AD/VD ratio UN); and AD/VD ratio in the lower nasal quadrant (AD/VD ratio LN).


Changes in retinal microvascular diameter in patients with diabetes.

da Silva AV, Gouvea SA, da Silva AP, Bortolon S, Rodrigues AN, Abreu GR, Herkenhoff FL - Int J Gen Med (2015)

Definition of the optical disk, the greater circle and quadrants of the retina for quantification of the arteriole (A) and venule (V) microvasculature.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4554448&req=5

f1-ijgm-8-267: Definition of the optical disk, the greater circle and quadrants of the retina for quantification of the arteriole (A) and venule (V) microvasculature.
Mentions: The program drew a circle with a radius three times that of the optic disk, which is similar to the procedure of Stanton et al.14 The observer marked the edges of retinal vessels around the greater circle using a caliper and measured in micron (µm). Two perpendicular lines were drawn through the center of the optical disk to divide the retina into quadrants (Figure 1). Vessels with diameters smaller than 30 µm were excluded due to the lack of precision in edge definition. The following variables were recorded: total number of arterioles (TNA); total number of venules (TNV); arteriole diameter (AD), defined as the sum of diameters for all arterioles; sum of arteriole diameters in the upper temporal quadrant (ADUT); sum of arteriole diameters in the lower temporal quadrant (ADLT); sum of arteriole diameters in the upper nasal quadrant (ADUN); sum of arteriole diameters in the lower nasal quadrant (ADLN); venule diameter (VD), defined as the sum of diameters for all venules; sum of venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant (VDUT); sum of venule diameters in the lower temporal quadrant (VDLT); sum of venule diameters in the upper nasal quadrant (VDUN); sum of venule diameters in the lower nasal quadrant (VDLN); arteriole diameter/venule diameter ratio, obtained by dividing these two variables (AD/VD ratio); the AD/VD ratio in the upper temporal quadrant (AD/VD ratio UT); AD/VD ratio in the lower temporal quadrant (AD/VD ratio LT); AD/VD ratio in the upper nasal quadrant (AD/VD ratio UN); and AD/VD ratio in the lower nasal quadrant (AD/VD ratio LN).

Bottom Line: The ratio of arteriole diameter to venule diameter was calculated.The retinal microvasculature pattern was related to clinical and biochemical parameters.Therefore, the early assessment of retinal microvascular changes is possible prior to the onset of diabetic retinopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Diabetic retinopathy is the main microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the retinal microvasculature pattern and analyze the influence of blood glucose level and the duration of diabetes mellitus on the retinal microvasculature.

Methods: Two groups were analyzed: patients with diabetes (N=26) and patients without diabetes, ie, controls (N=26). A quantitative semiautomated method analyzed retinal microvasculature. The diameters of arterioles and venules were measured. The total numbers of arterioles and venules were counted. The ratio of arteriole diameter to venule diameter was calculated. The retinal microvasculature pattern was related to clinical and biochemical parameters.

Results: Patients with diabetes exhibited larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant of the retina compared to the lower temporal quadrant (124.85±38.03 µm vs 102.92±15.69 µm; P<0.01). Patients with diabetes for 5 or more years had larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant than patients without diabetes (141.62±44.44 vs 112.58±32.11 µm; P<0.05). The degree of venodilation in the upper temporal quadrant was positively correlated with blood glucose level and the estimated duration of diabetes mellitus.

Interpretation and conclusion: The employed quantitative method demonstrated that patients with diabetes exhibited venule dilation in the upper temporal quadrant, and the duration of diabetes mellitus was positively correlated with blood glucose level. Therefore, the early assessment of retinal microvascular changes is possible prior to the onset of diabetic retinopathy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus