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Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine.

Wu SY, An SS, Hulme J - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties.The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world.This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnamsi, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

No MeSH data available.


Neuronal differentiation of hADMSCs using NGO grid-patterned substrate.Notes: (A) Images of neural-induced hADMSCs grown on poly-L-lysine-coated Au (Au), NGO-coated Au (Au-NGO), and NGO grid-patterned substrates (Au-NGO (Grid)). All substrates were coated with laminin to facilitate cell attachment. Cellular growth and morphology were monitored over 15 days, followed by staining for the neuronal marker TuJ1 (red) and nucleus (blue). Scale bars =20 µm. (B) Phase-contrast and fluorescence images of cells stained for F-actin (green) and nucleus (blue) after 15 days of cultivation show extensive cellular extension on NGO-grid patterns. Scale bar =50 µm. (C) Quantitative comparison of the length of cellular extension on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). (D) Quantitative comparison of the percentage of cell expressing the neuronal marker TuJ1 on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). Reproduced with permission from Kim TK, Shah S, Yang L. Controlling differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using combinatorial graphene hybrid-pattern arrays. ACS Nano. 2015:9(4):3780–3790.33 Copyright ©2015 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: NGO, nano graphene oxide; TuJ1, class III beta-tubulin.
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f4-ijn-10-009: Neuronal differentiation of hADMSCs using NGO grid-patterned substrate.Notes: (A) Images of neural-induced hADMSCs grown on poly-L-lysine-coated Au (Au), NGO-coated Au (Au-NGO), and NGO grid-patterned substrates (Au-NGO (Grid)). All substrates were coated with laminin to facilitate cell attachment. Cellular growth and morphology were monitored over 15 days, followed by staining for the neuronal marker TuJ1 (red) and nucleus (blue). Scale bars =20 µm. (B) Phase-contrast and fluorescence images of cells stained for F-actin (green) and nucleus (blue) after 15 days of cultivation show extensive cellular extension on NGO-grid patterns. Scale bar =50 µm. (C) Quantitative comparison of the length of cellular extension on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). (D) Quantitative comparison of the percentage of cell expressing the neuronal marker TuJ1 on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). Reproduced with permission from Kim TK, Shah S, Yang L. Controlling differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using combinatorial graphene hybrid-pattern arrays. ACS Nano. 2015:9(4):3780–3790.33 Copyright ©2015 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: NGO, nano graphene oxide; TuJ1, class III beta-tubulin.

Mentions: Silk fibrin (F) proteins are routinely employed in tissue generation as substitutes for bone and skin tissues and blood vessels. Utilizing the material advantages of Fibrin and GO, Wang et al fabricated a nanocomposite film by simply casting the two components together.138 Fibrin functionalized graphene oxide and GO can also be used as nucleation sites for the growth of hydroxyapatite (HA). Deepachitra et al139 showed that fibrin-graphene hydroxyapatite (FGHA) was an excellent platform for osteoblast cell growth and maturation, showing very high viability rates compared with GO, GOHA, and functionalized graphene oxide. Chaudhuri et al have sought to overcome the problems of toxicity and biocompatibility by blending the insulating polymer polycaprolactone with GO nanoplatelets resulting in a highly conductive biocompatible scaffold.138 The resulting scaffold was used to differentiate human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into skeletal muscle cells. It was concluded that the addition of GO nanoplatelets enhanced both conductivity and the dielectric constant of the GO-polycaprolactone scaffold stimulating highly oriented multinucleated myotube formation. Studies have proved the ability of GO to promote stem cell differentiation into osteogenic, cardio, neuronal, and adipogenic lineages.140–143 Of particular note is the recent work by Kim et al33 in which a novel strategy to guide stem cell differentiation into specific cell lineages by employing combinatorial GO hybrid-patterns of specific geometries was reported. NGO combinatorial pattern-arrays, with different sizes and geometries, were successfully transferred to various substrates such as Au-coated glass, molded polystyrene, flexible polydimethylsiloxane, and even biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) film. The NGO line patterns generated on both rigid gold substrates and flexible polymers were effective for guiding osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) with conversion efficiencies as high as 54.5% and 41%, respectively. In addition, patterned GO resulted in a conversion ratio of MSCs to neurons of up to 30%. The enhanced neuronal differentiation of hADM-SCs via patterned NGO could result in improved treatments of serious neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. A schematic showing neuronal differentiation of hADMSCs using different NGO grid-patterned substrates is shown in Figure 4.


Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine.

Wu SY, An SS, Hulme J - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Neuronal differentiation of hADMSCs using NGO grid-patterned substrate.Notes: (A) Images of neural-induced hADMSCs grown on poly-L-lysine-coated Au (Au), NGO-coated Au (Au-NGO), and NGO grid-patterned substrates (Au-NGO (Grid)). All substrates were coated with laminin to facilitate cell attachment. Cellular growth and morphology were monitored over 15 days, followed by staining for the neuronal marker TuJ1 (red) and nucleus (blue). Scale bars =20 µm. (B) Phase-contrast and fluorescence images of cells stained for F-actin (green) and nucleus (blue) after 15 days of cultivation show extensive cellular extension on NGO-grid patterns. Scale bar =50 µm. (C) Quantitative comparison of the length of cellular extension on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). (D) Quantitative comparison of the percentage of cell expressing the neuronal marker TuJ1 on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). Reproduced with permission from Kim TK, Shah S, Yang L. Controlling differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using combinatorial graphene hybrid-pattern arrays. ACS Nano. 2015:9(4):3780–3790.33 Copyright ©2015 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: NGO, nano graphene oxide; TuJ1, class III beta-tubulin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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f4-ijn-10-009: Neuronal differentiation of hADMSCs using NGO grid-patterned substrate.Notes: (A) Images of neural-induced hADMSCs grown on poly-L-lysine-coated Au (Au), NGO-coated Au (Au-NGO), and NGO grid-patterned substrates (Au-NGO (Grid)). All substrates were coated with laminin to facilitate cell attachment. Cellular growth and morphology were monitored over 15 days, followed by staining for the neuronal marker TuJ1 (red) and nucleus (blue). Scale bars =20 µm. (B) Phase-contrast and fluorescence images of cells stained for F-actin (green) and nucleus (blue) after 15 days of cultivation show extensive cellular extension on NGO-grid patterns. Scale bar =50 µm. (C) Quantitative comparison of the length of cellular extension on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). (D) Quantitative comparison of the percentage of cell expressing the neuronal marker TuJ1 on various substrates (n=3; *P<0.01, Student’s unpaired t-test). Reproduced with permission from Kim TK, Shah S, Yang L. Controlling differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using combinatorial graphene hybrid-pattern arrays. ACS Nano. 2015:9(4):3780–3790.33 Copyright ©2015 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: NGO, nano graphene oxide; TuJ1, class III beta-tubulin.
Mentions: Silk fibrin (F) proteins are routinely employed in tissue generation as substitutes for bone and skin tissues and blood vessels. Utilizing the material advantages of Fibrin and GO, Wang et al fabricated a nanocomposite film by simply casting the two components together.138 Fibrin functionalized graphene oxide and GO can also be used as nucleation sites for the growth of hydroxyapatite (HA). Deepachitra et al139 showed that fibrin-graphene hydroxyapatite (FGHA) was an excellent platform for osteoblast cell growth and maturation, showing very high viability rates compared with GO, GOHA, and functionalized graphene oxide. Chaudhuri et al have sought to overcome the problems of toxicity and biocompatibility by blending the insulating polymer polycaprolactone with GO nanoplatelets resulting in a highly conductive biocompatible scaffold.138 The resulting scaffold was used to differentiate human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into skeletal muscle cells. It was concluded that the addition of GO nanoplatelets enhanced both conductivity and the dielectric constant of the GO-polycaprolactone scaffold stimulating highly oriented multinucleated myotube formation. Studies have proved the ability of GO to promote stem cell differentiation into osteogenic, cardio, neuronal, and adipogenic lineages.140–143 Of particular note is the recent work by Kim et al33 in which a novel strategy to guide stem cell differentiation into specific cell lineages by employing combinatorial GO hybrid-patterns of specific geometries was reported. NGO combinatorial pattern-arrays, with different sizes and geometries, were successfully transferred to various substrates such as Au-coated glass, molded polystyrene, flexible polydimethylsiloxane, and even biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) film. The NGO line patterns generated on both rigid gold substrates and flexible polymers were effective for guiding osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) with conversion efficiencies as high as 54.5% and 41%, respectively. In addition, patterned GO resulted in a conversion ratio of MSCs to neurons of up to 30%. The enhanced neuronal differentiation of hADM-SCs via patterned NGO could result in improved treatments of serious neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. A schematic showing neuronal differentiation of hADMSCs using different NGO grid-patterned substrates is shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties.The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world.This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnamsi, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

No MeSH data available.