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Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine.

Wu SY, An SS, Hulme J - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties.The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world.This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnamsi, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fabrication of polyethylenimine poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) graphene oxide delivery vehicle and MDR reversion. Reproduced from Zhi F, Dong H, Jia X, et al. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro. Plos One. 2013;8(3):e60034.113Abbreviations: GO, graphene oxide; PLL, poly-l-lysine; PSS, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate); PEI, polyethylenimine; PPG, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/GO; ADR, Adriamycin.
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f2-ijn-10-009: Fabrication of polyethylenimine poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) graphene oxide delivery vehicle and MDR reversion. Reproduced from Zhi F, Dong H, Jia X, et al. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro. Plos One. 2013;8(3):e60034.113Abbreviations: GO, graphene oxide; PLL, poly-l-lysine; PSS, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate); PEI, polyethylenimine; PPG, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/GO; ADR, Adriamycin.

Mentions: Combination therapy can be defined as the simultaneous administration of two or more active or preactive pharmacological agents that are known to disrupt multiple targets, resulting in a more efficient solution to cancer treatments. The concept of multidrug delivery was utilized by Zhang et al27 by loading two anticancer drugs DOX and camptothecin (CPT) onto a folic acid GO carrier. The codelivery of both drugs had a better target efficacy and higher cytotoxicity than GO loaded with either DOX or CPT alone. Current chemotherapy for glioma is rarely satisfactory due to low therapeutic and efficiency and systemic side effects. A glioma-targeted drug delivery systems based on GO was recently reported109 in which targeted peptide chlorotoxin-conjugated graphene oxide sheets were loaded with DOX. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that chlorotoxin-conjugated GO/DOX mediated the highest rate of death of glioma cells compared with free DOX or GO loaded with DOX only. It is well known that code-livery is an effective treatment of cancer and other disease states.110–112 However, multidrug resistance frequently occurs in aggressive cancers and in patients with a terminal prognosis. Recently the codelivery of novel multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversing agents and anticancer drugs to cancer cells has shown great promise as a cancer treatment. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is associated with the development and progression of MDR in breast cancer, and it is emerging as a novel and promising MDR-reversing target. In a recent study by Zhi et al113 a multifunctional nanocomplex composed of polyethylenimine (PEI)/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/GO termed PPG was used to evaluate the reversal effects of PPG as a carrier for adriamycin (ADR) along with miR-21 targeted small-interfering RNA (siRNA) (anti-miR-21) in cancer drug resistance. Cell experiments showed that PPG significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells (an ADR-resistant breast cancer cell line) and exhibited much higher cytotoxicity than free ADR, suggesting that PPG could effectively reverse ADR resistance of MCF-7/ADR. A schematic of the PPG fabrication process and MDR reversion is shown in Figure 2.


Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine.

Wu SY, An SS, Hulme J - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Fabrication of polyethylenimine poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) graphene oxide delivery vehicle and MDR reversion. Reproduced from Zhi F, Dong H, Jia X, et al. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro. Plos One. 2013;8(3):e60034.113Abbreviations: GO, graphene oxide; PLL, poly-l-lysine; PSS, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate); PEI, polyethylenimine; PPG, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/GO; ADR, Adriamycin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4554423&req=5

f2-ijn-10-009: Fabrication of polyethylenimine poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) graphene oxide delivery vehicle and MDR reversion. Reproduced from Zhi F, Dong H, Jia X, et al. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro. Plos One. 2013;8(3):e60034.113Abbreviations: GO, graphene oxide; PLL, poly-l-lysine; PSS, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate); PEI, polyethylenimine; PPG, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/GO; ADR, Adriamycin.
Mentions: Combination therapy can be defined as the simultaneous administration of two or more active or preactive pharmacological agents that are known to disrupt multiple targets, resulting in a more efficient solution to cancer treatments. The concept of multidrug delivery was utilized by Zhang et al27 by loading two anticancer drugs DOX and camptothecin (CPT) onto a folic acid GO carrier. The codelivery of both drugs had a better target efficacy and higher cytotoxicity than GO loaded with either DOX or CPT alone. Current chemotherapy for glioma is rarely satisfactory due to low therapeutic and efficiency and systemic side effects. A glioma-targeted drug delivery systems based on GO was recently reported109 in which targeted peptide chlorotoxin-conjugated graphene oxide sheets were loaded with DOX. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that chlorotoxin-conjugated GO/DOX mediated the highest rate of death of glioma cells compared with free DOX or GO loaded with DOX only. It is well known that code-livery is an effective treatment of cancer and other disease states.110–112 However, multidrug resistance frequently occurs in aggressive cancers and in patients with a terminal prognosis. Recently the codelivery of novel multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversing agents and anticancer drugs to cancer cells has shown great promise as a cancer treatment. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is associated with the development and progression of MDR in breast cancer, and it is emerging as a novel and promising MDR-reversing target. In a recent study by Zhi et al113 a multifunctional nanocomplex composed of polyethylenimine (PEI)/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/GO termed PPG was used to evaluate the reversal effects of PPG as a carrier for adriamycin (ADR) along with miR-21 targeted small-interfering RNA (siRNA) (anti-miR-21) in cancer drug resistance. Cell experiments showed that PPG significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells (an ADR-resistant breast cancer cell line) and exhibited much higher cytotoxicity than free ADR, suggesting that PPG could effectively reverse ADR resistance of MCF-7/ADR. A schematic of the PPG fabrication process and MDR reversion is shown in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties.The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world.This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnamsi, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus