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Measurement of creatinine in human plasma using a functional porous polymer structure sensing motif.

Nanda SS, An SS, Yi DK - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: PLGA and BMIM chloride formed a functional porous polymer structure (FPPS)-like structure.Creatinine within the FPPS rapidly hydrolyzed and released OH(-), which in turn converted DCFH-DA to DCFH, developing an intense green color or green fluorescence.This DCF(+)-based sensor could detect creatinine levels with detection limit of 5 µM and also measure the creatinine in blood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
In this study, a new method for detecting creatinine was developed. This novel sensor comprised of two ionic liquids, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) chloride, in the presence of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). PLGA and BMIM chloride formed a functional porous polymer structure (FPPS)-like structure. Creatinine within the FPPS rapidly hydrolyzed and released OH(-), which in turn converted DCFH-DA to DCFH, developing an intense green color or green fluorescence. The conversion of DCFH to DCF(+) resulted in swelling of FPPS and increased solubility. This DCF(+)-based sensor could detect creatinine levels with detection limit of 5 µM and also measure the creatinine in blood. This novel method could be used in diagnostic applications for monitoring individuals with renal dysfunction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The optical density of blood sample.Notes: Creatinine levels in five blood samples from healthy individuals, five from patients with Alzheimer’s, and five from diabetic patients. *P<0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.
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f9-ijn-10-093: The optical density of blood sample.Notes: Creatinine levels in five blood samples from healthy individuals, five from patients with Alzheimer’s, and five from diabetic patients. *P<0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.

Mentions: The creatinine level in diabetic patients exceeded the normal range. This would be expected because diabetic patients typically suffer from renal dysfunction. In Figure 6, the creatinine levels in blood from healthy individuals were compared with blood from diabetic patients. The blood from diabetic patients showed greater fluorescence intensity at 530 nm. Figure 7 shows that as the concentration of creatinine increased, the fluorescence intensity at 530 nm also increased. The lower limit for detecting creatinine in blood is 5 µM. We took five samples of blood from healthy individuals, five samples from patients with Alzheimer’s, and five samples from diabetic patients, and checked creatinine levels. All blood samples contained creatinine and produced a green color under UV visible light at 365 nm and in normal white light, as shown in Figure 8. Arvanitakis et al26 showed that creatinine has been significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. A series of experiments proved that Alzheimer’s disease was closely associated with Plasma and their result showed that Alzheimer’s can be detected from Plasma.28–31 Another recent study by Yoshida et al27 described that there was a slow increase of creatinine level in case of Alzheimer’s disease as compared with normal blood. Figure 9 shows that creatinine levels in patients with Alzheimer’s and healthy individuals were only slightly different, whereas in diabetic patients, this difference was extremely high (P<0.05). All experiments were done in triplicate. In Figure 10, a detailed description about creatinine sensing is mentioned. In the first step, FPPS was prepared, as mentioned in “Preparation of FPPS” section. FPPS (5 mg), creatinine, and DCFH-DA were added to a 1.5 mL tube. Ester containing pore converted DCFH-DA to DCFH and simultaneously creatinine on hydrolysis produced OH−. This OH− helped to produce DCF+ from DCFH. As the concentration of DCF+ increased, it produced more green color under UV light at 365 nm excitation. This is the basic mechanism, and is mentioned in Figure 10.


Measurement of creatinine in human plasma using a functional porous polymer structure sensing motif.

Nanda SS, An SS, Yi DK - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

The optical density of blood sample.Notes: Creatinine levels in five blood samples from healthy individuals, five from patients with Alzheimer’s, and five from diabetic patients. *P<0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4554416&req=5

f9-ijn-10-093: The optical density of blood sample.Notes: Creatinine levels in five blood samples from healthy individuals, five from patients with Alzheimer’s, and five from diabetic patients. *P<0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.
Mentions: The creatinine level in diabetic patients exceeded the normal range. This would be expected because diabetic patients typically suffer from renal dysfunction. In Figure 6, the creatinine levels in blood from healthy individuals were compared with blood from diabetic patients. The blood from diabetic patients showed greater fluorescence intensity at 530 nm. Figure 7 shows that as the concentration of creatinine increased, the fluorescence intensity at 530 nm also increased. The lower limit for detecting creatinine in blood is 5 µM. We took five samples of blood from healthy individuals, five samples from patients with Alzheimer’s, and five samples from diabetic patients, and checked creatinine levels. All blood samples contained creatinine and produced a green color under UV visible light at 365 nm and in normal white light, as shown in Figure 8. Arvanitakis et al26 showed that creatinine has been significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. A series of experiments proved that Alzheimer’s disease was closely associated with Plasma and their result showed that Alzheimer’s can be detected from Plasma.28–31 Another recent study by Yoshida et al27 described that there was a slow increase of creatinine level in case of Alzheimer’s disease as compared with normal blood. Figure 9 shows that creatinine levels in patients with Alzheimer’s and healthy individuals were only slightly different, whereas in diabetic patients, this difference was extremely high (P<0.05). All experiments were done in triplicate. In Figure 10, a detailed description about creatinine sensing is mentioned. In the first step, FPPS was prepared, as mentioned in “Preparation of FPPS” section. FPPS (5 mg), creatinine, and DCFH-DA were added to a 1.5 mL tube. Ester containing pore converted DCFH-DA to DCFH and simultaneously creatinine on hydrolysis produced OH−. This OH− helped to produce DCF+ from DCFH. As the concentration of DCF+ increased, it produced more green color under UV light at 365 nm excitation. This is the basic mechanism, and is mentioned in Figure 10.

Bottom Line: PLGA and BMIM chloride formed a functional porous polymer structure (FPPS)-like structure.Creatinine within the FPPS rapidly hydrolyzed and released OH(-), which in turn converted DCFH-DA to DCFH, developing an intense green color or green fluorescence.This DCF(+)-based sensor could detect creatinine levels with detection limit of 5 µM and also measure the creatinine in blood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
In this study, a new method for detecting creatinine was developed. This novel sensor comprised of two ionic liquids, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) chloride, in the presence of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). PLGA and BMIM chloride formed a functional porous polymer structure (FPPS)-like structure. Creatinine within the FPPS rapidly hydrolyzed and released OH(-), which in turn converted DCFH-DA to DCFH, developing an intense green color or green fluorescence. The conversion of DCFH to DCF(+) resulted in swelling of FPPS and increased solubility. This DCF(+)-based sensor could detect creatinine levels with detection limit of 5 µM and also measure the creatinine in blood. This novel method could be used in diagnostic applications for monitoring individuals with renal dysfunction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus