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The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin.

Mahmoud FA, Hashem KS, Elkelawy AM - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species.The biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological studies.Aspirin nanoemulsion has less toxic effect on the gastric mucosa compared to ordinary aspirin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt ; Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: No dose of aspirin is free of bleeding risk. Even at a dose as low as 75 mg/day, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is twice as high as among nonusers. Nanoemulsions (NEs) are emulsion systems with droplet size in nanometer scale in which oil or water droplets are finely dispersed in the opposite phase with the help of a suitable surfactant to stabilize the system.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin NE in comparison to conventional aspirin.

Materials and methods: A total of 24 male rats were used in the study and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given saline. Group 2 was given blank NE 1.5 mL/kg orally. Group 3 was given aspirin 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Group 4 was given aspirin NE 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Rats were killed, and gastric tissue was quickly excised after dissection of the animals. The tissues were divided into three pieces. The first one was kept in formalin 10% for pathological investigation. The second piece was kept in liquid nitrogen for molecular investigation. The third piece was homogenized in ten volumes of ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7) using a Teflon homogenizer until a uniform suspension was obtained. The homogenate was centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4°C to separate the supernatant from cellular debris. The supernatant was then used for the estimation of biochemical assays.

Results: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species. This was shown by the significant increase in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also a significant decrease in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. In the aspirin-treated group compared to the control group, the NE had a protective effect on the stomach and caused less injury than aspirin, indicated by significant decreases in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also significant increases in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological studies.

Conclusion: Aspirin nanoemulsion has less toxic effect on the gastric mucosa compared to ordinary aspirin. This can be indicated by the increase of the antioxidant activity and the decrease of the inflammatory mediators in the gastric tissue.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of negative control, blank nanoemulsion, aspirin, and aspirin nanoemulsion on iNOS level in gastric tissue.Notes: *Significant compared to control; #significant compared to aspirin (group 3).Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
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f3-ijn-10-5301: Effect of negative control, blank nanoemulsion, aspirin, and aspirin nanoemulsion on iNOS level in gastric tissue.Notes: *Significant compared to control; #significant compared to aspirin (group 3).Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.

Mentions: iNOS in the gastric tissue of the aspirin group showed a significant increase compared to the control group (P<0.05) (Figure 3). The aspirin NE-treated group showed a significant decrease in iNOS level compared to aspirin group. Both blank NE and aspirin NE showed a nonsignificant difference compared to the control group (P<0.05).


The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin.

Mahmoud FA, Hashem KS, Elkelawy AM - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Effect of negative control, blank nanoemulsion, aspirin, and aspirin nanoemulsion on iNOS level in gastric tissue.Notes: *Significant compared to control; #significant compared to aspirin (group 3).Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4554396&req=5

f3-ijn-10-5301: Effect of negative control, blank nanoemulsion, aspirin, and aspirin nanoemulsion on iNOS level in gastric tissue.Notes: *Significant compared to control; #significant compared to aspirin (group 3).Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
Mentions: iNOS in the gastric tissue of the aspirin group showed a significant increase compared to the control group (P<0.05) (Figure 3). The aspirin NE-treated group showed a significant decrease in iNOS level compared to aspirin group. Both blank NE and aspirin NE showed a nonsignificant difference compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Bottom Line: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species.The biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological studies.Aspirin nanoemulsion has less toxic effect on the gastric mucosa compared to ordinary aspirin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt ; Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: No dose of aspirin is free of bleeding risk. Even at a dose as low as 75 mg/day, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is twice as high as among nonusers. Nanoemulsions (NEs) are emulsion systems with droplet size in nanometer scale in which oil or water droplets are finely dispersed in the opposite phase with the help of a suitable surfactant to stabilize the system.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin NE in comparison to conventional aspirin.

Materials and methods: A total of 24 male rats were used in the study and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given saline. Group 2 was given blank NE 1.5 mL/kg orally. Group 3 was given aspirin 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Group 4 was given aspirin NE 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Rats were killed, and gastric tissue was quickly excised after dissection of the animals. The tissues were divided into three pieces. The first one was kept in formalin 10% for pathological investigation. The second piece was kept in liquid nitrogen for molecular investigation. The third piece was homogenized in ten volumes of ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7) using a Teflon homogenizer until a uniform suspension was obtained. The homogenate was centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4°C to separate the supernatant from cellular debris. The supernatant was then used for the estimation of biochemical assays.

Results: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species. This was shown by the significant increase in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also a significant decrease in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. In the aspirin-treated group compared to the control group, the NE had a protective effect on the stomach and caused less injury than aspirin, indicated by significant decreases in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also significant increases in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological studies.

Conclusion: Aspirin nanoemulsion has less toxic effect on the gastric mucosa compared to ordinary aspirin. This can be indicated by the increase of the antioxidant activity and the decrease of the inflammatory mediators in the gastric tissue.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus