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The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in China: a multicenter vitamin D status survey.

Yu S, Fang H, Han J, Cheng X, Xia L, Li S, Liu M, Tao Z, Wang L, Hou L, Qin X, Li P, Zhang R, Su W, Qiu L - Medicine (Baltimore) (2015)

Bottom Line: Women had a significant higher rate of deficiency than men (66.3% vs 45.3%, P < 0.01).The serum iPTH level showed a significant negative correlation with the 25OHD level (r = -0.23, P < 0.01) after correcting for age and sex.We also observed significant differences in the 25OHD levels according to sex, age, and region among apparently healthy individuals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Department of Clinical Laboratory (SY, HF, JH, XC, LX, LH, XQ, PL, WS, LQ), Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; Department of Clinical Laboratory (SL), The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian; Department of Clinical Laboratory (ML), The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong; Department of Clinical Laboratory (ZT), The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou; Department of Clinical Laboratory (LW), Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang; and Department of Clinical Laboratory (RZ), China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency, which is usually detected by using immunoassays or the more reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, has recently been considered a public health problem worldwide. However, the vitamin D status in Chinese populations, as measured using the LC-MS/MS method, is not available. The objective of this multicenter study was to determine the vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency by using a reliable method in 5 large cities in China. From May 1 to September 31, 2013, we conducted a multicenter study on 2173 apparently healthy adults who were recruited from 5 Chinese cities. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25OHD2 and 25OHD3 levels were measured using the LC-MS/MS method. Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphate levels were also measured using an automatic analyzer. The mean 25OHD level of all participants was 19.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL (2.5-97.5%: 7.9-32.6 ng/mL), and only 109 (5.0%) participants had a 25OHD2 level >2.5 ng/mL (maximum, 22.4 ng/mL). In this study, the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), vitamin D deficiency (10-20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL), and vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL) was 5.9%, 50.0%, 38.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Women had a significant higher rate of deficiency than men (66.3% vs 45.3%, P < 0.01). Participants aged 18 to 39 years had a lower 25OHD level than elderly individuals (>59 years). Lifestyle may influence the 25OHD level more than the latitude, with participants in Dalian having the highest 25OHD level and the lowest deficiency rate. The serum iPTH level showed a significant negative correlation with the 25OHD level (r = -0.23, P < 0.01) after correcting for age and sex. In conclusion, the present study evaluated the vitamin D status using a reliable method, and our results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among all age groups in China, especially among younger adults. We also observed significant differences in the 25OHD levels according to sex, age, and region among apparently healthy individuals.

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Mean level of serum 25OHD according to subgroup. (A) Male and female. (B) Various regions. Bars indicate stand deviation, and P values were calculated using independent 2 sample t tests. 25OHD = 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
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Figure 1: Mean level of serum 25OHD according to subgroup. (A) Male and female. (B) Various regions. Bars indicate stand deviation, and P values were calculated using independent 2 sample t tests. 25OHD = 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Mentions: A significant difference was detected in the 25OHD levels of male and female participants, as well as between the various regions (Figure 1). Therefore, we also separately analyzed the 25OHD status of each region (Table 2). Participants from Dalian (21.8 ± 6.6 ng/mL) and Guangzhou (21.4 ± 4.9 ng/mL) had significantly higher 25OHD levels than those from Hangzhou (19.0 ± 5.7 ng/mL), Urumqi (18.3 ± 6.7 ng/mL), and Beijing (16.2 ± 6.2 ng/mL); the 25OHD status of participants from Beijing was significantly lower than that of participants from the other 4 cities’ (Figure 1). Beijing had the highest rate of 25OHD deficiency (73.5%), followed by Urumqi (66.8%), Hangzhou (60.6%), Dalian (42.1%), and Guangzhou (39.6%). The overall prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in this study was 55.9%, and 94.6% participants exhibited 25OHD deficiency or insufficiency.


The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in China: a multicenter vitamin D status survey.

Yu S, Fang H, Han J, Cheng X, Xia L, Li S, Liu M, Tao Z, Wang L, Hou L, Qin X, Li P, Zhang R, Su W, Qiu L - Medicine (Baltimore) (2015)

Mean level of serum 25OHD according to subgroup. (A) Male and female. (B) Various regions. Bars indicate stand deviation, and P values were calculated using independent 2 sample t tests. 25OHD = 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4554140&req=5

Figure 1: Mean level of serum 25OHD according to subgroup. (A) Male and female. (B) Various regions. Bars indicate stand deviation, and P values were calculated using independent 2 sample t tests. 25OHD = 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
Mentions: A significant difference was detected in the 25OHD levels of male and female participants, as well as between the various regions (Figure 1). Therefore, we also separately analyzed the 25OHD status of each region (Table 2). Participants from Dalian (21.8 ± 6.6 ng/mL) and Guangzhou (21.4 ± 4.9 ng/mL) had significantly higher 25OHD levels than those from Hangzhou (19.0 ± 5.7 ng/mL), Urumqi (18.3 ± 6.7 ng/mL), and Beijing (16.2 ± 6.2 ng/mL); the 25OHD status of participants from Beijing was significantly lower than that of participants from the other 4 cities’ (Figure 1). Beijing had the highest rate of 25OHD deficiency (73.5%), followed by Urumqi (66.8%), Hangzhou (60.6%), Dalian (42.1%), and Guangzhou (39.6%). The overall prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in this study was 55.9%, and 94.6% participants exhibited 25OHD deficiency or insufficiency.

Bottom Line: Women had a significant higher rate of deficiency than men (66.3% vs 45.3%, P < 0.01).The serum iPTH level showed a significant negative correlation with the 25OHD level (r = -0.23, P < 0.01) after correcting for age and sex.We also observed significant differences in the 25OHD levels according to sex, age, and region among apparently healthy individuals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Department of Clinical Laboratory (SY, HF, JH, XC, LX, LH, XQ, PL, WS, LQ), Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; Department of Clinical Laboratory (SL), The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian; Department of Clinical Laboratory (ML), The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong; Department of Clinical Laboratory (ZT), The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou; Department of Clinical Laboratory (LW), Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang; and Department of Clinical Laboratory (RZ), China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency, which is usually detected by using immunoassays or the more reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, has recently been considered a public health problem worldwide. However, the vitamin D status in Chinese populations, as measured using the LC-MS/MS method, is not available. The objective of this multicenter study was to determine the vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency by using a reliable method in 5 large cities in China. From May 1 to September 31, 2013, we conducted a multicenter study on 2173 apparently healthy adults who were recruited from 5 Chinese cities. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25OHD2 and 25OHD3 levels were measured using the LC-MS/MS method. Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphate levels were also measured using an automatic analyzer. The mean 25OHD level of all participants was 19.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL (2.5-97.5%: 7.9-32.6 ng/mL), and only 109 (5.0%) participants had a 25OHD2 level >2.5 ng/mL (maximum, 22.4 ng/mL). In this study, the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), vitamin D deficiency (10-20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL), and vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL) was 5.9%, 50.0%, 38.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Women had a significant higher rate of deficiency than men (66.3% vs 45.3%, P < 0.01). Participants aged 18 to 39 years had a lower 25OHD level than elderly individuals (>59 years). Lifestyle may influence the 25OHD level more than the latitude, with participants in Dalian having the highest 25OHD level and the lowest deficiency rate. The serum iPTH level showed a significant negative correlation with the 25OHD level (r = -0.23, P < 0.01) after correcting for age and sex. In conclusion, the present study evaluated the vitamin D status using a reliable method, and our results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among all age groups in China, especially among younger adults. We also observed significant differences in the 25OHD levels according to sex, age, and region among apparently healthy individuals.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus