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Diagnostic value of Wilms tumor 1 and CD44 in Langerhans cell sarcoma: case series of 4 patients.

Wang CS, Chen YP, He WH, Yin J, Gao CF, Wang P, Li H, Lv XX - Medicine (Baltimore) (2015)

Bottom Line: Immunochemical antibodies, such as langerin, S-100 protein, and CD1a, have been used to diagnose LCS, but the results are crossed with LCH.To determine more significant biomarkers of LCS, we studied the expression and distribution pattern of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) in LCS.Our results suggest that WT1 and CD44 are potential biomarkers for LCS diagnosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Department of Pathology (C-sW, Y-pC, W-hH, JY, PW, X-xL); Institute of Anal-Colorectal Surgery (C-fG), 150th Hospital, Luoyang, Henan; and Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery (HL), Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is a rare tumor with markedly malignant cytological features originating from Langerhans cells. LCS diagnosis is difficult and requires differentiation from other malignant tumors and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Immunochemical antibodies, such as langerin, S-100 protein, and CD1a, have been used to diagnose LCS, but the results are crossed with LCH. To determine more significant biomarkers of LCS, we studied the expression and distribution pattern of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) in LCS. A broad panel of antibodies was used for immunohistochemical technology. Simultaneously, dual immunofluorescence staining examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining methods were used to study the location of WT1 and CD44 in LCS tumor cells. The results showed that tumor cells expressed WT1, CD44, and other special Langerhans cell markers (langerin, CD1a, and S-100 protein). LCS cells in all the cases showed normal cytogenetic findings without overexpression of WT1 and CD44. The expression of WT1 and CD44 was observed on langerin tumor cells by dual immunofluorescence staining examination in LCS. Our results suggest that WT1 and CD44 are potential biomarkers for LCS diagnosis. Clear understanding of their functional roles may further explain the pathogenesis of this highly malignant tumor and develop some novel immunotherapy strategies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Morphological characteristics of LCS. Hematoxylin and eosin staining evidenced that the tumor cell with longitudinal nuclear groove and high mitotic rate was observed (A and B), (hematoxylin–eosin staining, magnification ×100); the tumor cells were positive for langerin (C), CD1a (D), CD68 (E), and S-100 protein (F). LCS = Langerhans cell sarcoma.
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Figure 1: Morphological characteristics of LCS. Hematoxylin and eosin staining evidenced that the tumor cell with longitudinal nuclear groove and high mitotic rate was observed (A and B), (hematoxylin–eosin staining, magnification ×100); the tumor cells were positive for langerin (C), CD1a (D), CD68 (E), and S-100 protein (F). LCS = Langerhans cell sarcoma.

Mentions: Microscopically, tumor cells exhibited cytological features of malignancy and showed large cell sizes with irregular shapes and abundant cytoplasm with eosinophilic red staining, irregular, large, and variable prominent nuclei, and numerous neoplastic cells with longitudinal nuclear groove were observed. More than 30 mitoses per 10 high-power fields were detected. Large amounts of infiltrated inflammatory cells, such as plasma cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, were also observed (Figure 1A and B). Simultaneously, immunohistochemical staining showed that neoplastic cells were positive for langerin, CD1a, CD68, and S-100 protein (Figure 1 C–F). These cases were diagnosed as LCS based on histopathological characteristics and immunophenotypical findings. No tumor cells were expressed other than the antibodies listed in Table 2.


Diagnostic value of Wilms tumor 1 and CD44 in Langerhans cell sarcoma: case series of 4 patients.

Wang CS, Chen YP, He WH, Yin J, Gao CF, Wang P, Li H, Lv XX - Medicine (Baltimore) (2015)

Morphological characteristics of LCS. Hematoxylin and eosin staining evidenced that the tumor cell with longitudinal nuclear groove and high mitotic rate was observed (A and B), (hematoxylin–eosin staining, magnification ×100); the tumor cells were positive for langerin (C), CD1a (D), CD68 (E), and S-100 protein (F). LCS = Langerhans cell sarcoma.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4554032&req=5

Figure 1: Morphological characteristics of LCS. Hematoxylin and eosin staining evidenced that the tumor cell with longitudinal nuclear groove and high mitotic rate was observed (A and B), (hematoxylin–eosin staining, magnification ×100); the tumor cells were positive for langerin (C), CD1a (D), CD68 (E), and S-100 protein (F). LCS = Langerhans cell sarcoma.
Mentions: Microscopically, tumor cells exhibited cytological features of malignancy and showed large cell sizes with irregular shapes and abundant cytoplasm with eosinophilic red staining, irregular, large, and variable prominent nuclei, and numerous neoplastic cells with longitudinal nuclear groove were observed. More than 30 mitoses per 10 high-power fields were detected. Large amounts of infiltrated inflammatory cells, such as plasma cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, were also observed (Figure 1A and B). Simultaneously, immunohistochemical staining showed that neoplastic cells were positive for langerin, CD1a, CD68, and S-100 protein (Figure 1 C–F). These cases were diagnosed as LCS based on histopathological characteristics and immunophenotypical findings. No tumor cells were expressed other than the antibodies listed in Table 2.

Bottom Line: Immunochemical antibodies, such as langerin, S-100 protein, and CD1a, have been used to diagnose LCS, but the results are crossed with LCH.To determine more significant biomarkers of LCS, we studied the expression and distribution pattern of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) in LCS.Our results suggest that WT1 and CD44 are potential biomarkers for LCS diagnosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Department of Pathology (C-sW, Y-pC, W-hH, JY, PW, X-xL); Institute of Anal-Colorectal Surgery (C-fG), 150th Hospital, Luoyang, Henan; and Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery (HL), Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is a rare tumor with markedly malignant cytological features originating from Langerhans cells. LCS diagnosis is difficult and requires differentiation from other malignant tumors and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Immunochemical antibodies, such as langerin, S-100 protein, and CD1a, have been used to diagnose LCS, but the results are crossed with LCH. To determine more significant biomarkers of LCS, we studied the expression and distribution pattern of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) in LCS. A broad panel of antibodies was used for immunohistochemical technology. Simultaneously, dual immunofluorescence staining examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining methods were used to study the location of WT1 and CD44 in LCS tumor cells. The results showed that tumor cells expressed WT1, CD44, and other special Langerhans cell markers (langerin, CD1a, and S-100 protein). LCS cells in all the cases showed normal cytogenetic findings without overexpression of WT1 and CD44. The expression of WT1 and CD44 was observed on langerin tumor cells by dual immunofluorescence staining examination in LCS. Our results suggest that WT1 and CD44 are potential biomarkers for LCS diagnosis. Clear understanding of their functional roles may further explain the pathogenesis of this highly malignant tumor and develop some novel immunotherapy strategies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus