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Nicotine: Carcinogenicity and Effects on Response to Cancer Treatment - A Review.

Sanner T, Grimsrud TK - Front Oncol (2015)

Bottom Line: TSNA may be formed from nicotine in the body.The role of nicotine as the major addictive component of tobacco products may have distracted our attention from toxicological effects on cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor malignancy.Effects on cancer disease are important aspects in the evaluation of possible long-term effects from sources of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and products for nicotine replacement therapy, which both have a potential for life-long use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital , Oslo , Norway.

ABSTRACT
Tobacco use is considered the single most important man-made cause of cancer that can be avoided. The evidence that nicotine is involved in cancer development is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Both tobacco smoke and tobacco products for oral use contain a number of carcinogenic substances, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), which undoubtedly contribute to tobacco related cancer. Recent studies have shown that nicotine can affect several important steps in the development of cancer, and suggest that it may cause aggravation and recurrence of the disease. TSNA may be formed from nicotine in the body. The role of nicotine as the major addictive component of tobacco products may have distracted our attention from toxicological effects on cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor malignancy. Effects on cancer disease are important aspects in the evaluation of possible long-term effects from sources of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and products for nicotine replacement therapy, which both have a potential for life-long use.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Formation of NNK, NNN, and NNAL.
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Figure 1: Formation of NNK, NNN, and NNAL.

Mentions: Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines is formed by N-nitrosation of alkaloids in tobacco (Figure 1). NNN (N′-nitrosonornicotine) and NNK (4-(metylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanon) are among the most important and most potent carcinogens in tobacco and tobacco smoke. NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) is a metabolite of NNK and determination of total NNAL (NNAL and its glucuronides) in urine is often used to assess the possible role of TSNA in tumor development. A significant relationship between total NNAL has been found in serum samples from smokers and lung cancer risk (8). NNN and NNK are classified by International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) as human carcinogens (9, 10).


Nicotine: Carcinogenicity and Effects on Response to Cancer Treatment - A Review.

Sanner T, Grimsrud TK - Front Oncol (2015)

Formation of NNK, NNN, and NNAL.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553893&req=5

Figure 1: Formation of NNK, NNN, and NNAL.
Mentions: Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines is formed by N-nitrosation of alkaloids in tobacco (Figure 1). NNN (N′-nitrosonornicotine) and NNK (4-(metylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanon) are among the most important and most potent carcinogens in tobacco and tobacco smoke. NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) is a metabolite of NNK and determination of total NNAL (NNAL and its glucuronides) in urine is often used to assess the possible role of TSNA in tumor development. A significant relationship between total NNAL has been found in serum samples from smokers and lung cancer risk (8). NNN and NNK are classified by International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) as human carcinogens (9, 10).

Bottom Line: TSNA may be formed from nicotine in the body.The role of nicotine as the major addictive component of tobacco products may have distracted our attention from toxicological effects on cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor malignancy.Effects on cancer disease are important aspects in the evaluation of possible long-term effects from sources of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and products for nicotine replacement therapy, which both have a potential for life-long use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital , Oslo , Norway.

ABSTRACT
Tobacco use is considered the single most important man-made cause of cancer that can be avoided. The evidence that nicotine is involved in cancer development is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Both tobacco smoke and tobacco products for oral use contain a number of carcinogenic substances, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), which undoubtedly contribute to tobacco related cancer. Recent studies have shown that nicotine can affect several important steps in the development of cancer, and suggest that it may cause aggravation and recurrence of the disease. TSNA may be formed from nicotine in the body. The role of nicotine as the major addictive component of tobacco products may have distracted our attention from toxicological effects on cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor malignancy. Effects on cancer disease are important aspects in the evaluation of possible long-term effects from sources of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and products for nicotine replacement therapy, which both have a potential for life-long use.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus