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Toll like receptors: Sensors for herpes simplex virus infection.

Govindan B - Indian J Sex Transm Dis (2014 Jul-Dec)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Government Mohan Kumaramangalam Medical College Hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The viral recognition is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which are a primeval part of the immune system... PRR is the protein expressed by cells of the innate immune system to identify highly conserved structural motifs known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)... Toll like receptors (TLR) are the most eminent members of the PRR... After binding to its cognate, TLR activates the adapter protein, toll/interlukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter protein (TRIF), in a MyD88-independent pathway... TRIF combines with a protein kinase TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) to produce interferon regulatory factors (IRF 3 and IRF 7) which subsequently produces IFN-β, resulting in antiviral activity [Figure 1]... There are yet other receptors in the cytoplasm called RLR (retinoic acid inducible gene, RIG like receptors) which also recognize the viral RNA and work together with TLR in the production of IFN-β... However, HSV has a unique way to evade this anti-viral IFN-β response by producing serine protease NS3/4A (degrades the cellular adapter protein TRIF) and immediate early protein ICP0 (prevents the aggregation of activated IRF-3)... Clinical and virological manifestations of genital HSV-2 infections vary widely due to the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR... Studies proved that polymorphisms in TLR 2 had resulted in increased HSV-2 genital shedding... Svensson et al. in their study suggested that the absence of TLR3 functional activity predisposes children to HSV-1 encephalitis... Apart from genetic variations in TLR which modify the course of HSV illness, Resiquimod, a TLR 7 and TLR 8 agonist also decreases HSV-2 genital shedding... Thus, the critical role played by TLR in innate immunity has been a tremendous advancement in the pathogenesis of HSV infection and more treatment options could be tried in this line.

No MeSH data available.


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Schema for toll like receptors recognition of herpes simplex viral - pathogen-associated molecular patterns and its signalling cascade
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Figure 1: Schema for toll like receptors recognition of herpes simplex viral - pathogen-associated molecular patterns and its signalling cascade

Mentions: Herpes simplex viral (HSV) double stranded RNA is recognized by the endosomal TLR. After binding to its cognate, TLR activates the adapter protein, toll/interlukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter protein (TRIF), in a MyD88-independent pathway. TRIF combines with a protein kinase TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) to produce interferon regulatory factors (IRF 3 and IRF 7) which subsequently produces IFN-β, resulting in antiviral activity [Figure 1].[2] There are yet other receptors in the cytoplasm called RLR (retinoic acid inducible gene, RIG like receptors) which also recognize the viral RNA and work together with TLR in the production of IFN-β.


Toll like receptors: Sensors for herpes simplex virus infection.

Govindan B - Indian J Sex Transm Dis (2014 Jul-Dec)

Schema for toll like receptors recognition of herpes simplex viral - pathogen-associated molecular patterns and its signalling cascade
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553855&req=5

Figure 1: Schema for toll like receptors recognition of herpes simplex viral - pathogen-associated molecular patterns and its signalling cascade
Mentions: Herpes simplex viral (HSV) double stranded RNA is recognized by the endosomal TLR. After binding to its cognate, TLR activates the adapter protein, toll/interlukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter protein (TRIF), in a MyD88-independent pathway. TRIF combines with a protein kinase TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) to produce interferon regulatory factors (IRF 3 and IRF 7) which subsequently produces IFN-β, resulting in antiviral activity [Figure 1].[2] There are yet other receptors in the cytoplasm called RLR (retinoic acid inducible gene, RIG like receptors) which also recognize the viral RNA and work together with TLR in the production of IFN-β.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Government Mohan Kumaramangalam Medical College Hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

The viral recognition is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which are a primeval part of the immune system... PRR is the protein expressed by cells of the innate immune system to identify highly conserved structural motifs known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)... Toll like receptors (TLR) are the most eminent members of the PRR... After binding to its cognate, TLR activates the adapter protein, toll/interlukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter protein (TRIF), in a MyD88-independent pathway... TRIF combines with a protein kinase TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) to produce interferon regulatory factors (IRF 3 and IRF 7) which subsequently produces IFN-β, resulting in antiviral activity [Figure 1]... There are yet other receptors in the cytoplasm called RLR (retinoic acid inducible gene, RIG like receptors) which also recognize the viral RNA and work together with TLR in the production of IFN-β... However, HSV has a unique way to evade this anti-viral IFN-β response by producing serine protease NS3/4A (degrades the cellular adapter protein TRIF) and immediate early protein ICP0 (prevents the aggregation of activated IRF-3)... Clinical and virological manifestations of genital HSV-2 infections vary widely due to the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR... Studies proved that polymorphisms in TLR 2 had resulted in increased HSV-2 genital shedding... Svensson et al. in their study suggested that the absence of TLR3 functional activity predisposes children to HSV-1 encephalitis... Apart from genetic variations in TLR which modify the course of HSV illness, Resiquimod, a TLR 7 and TLR 8 agonist also decreases HSV-2 genital shedding... Thus, the critical role played by TLR in innate immunity has been a tremendous advancement in the pathogenesis of HSV infection and more treatment options could be tried in this line.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus