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Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae).

Kariithi HM, van Oers MM, Vlak JM, Vreysen MJ, Parker AG, Abd-Alla AM - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach.The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities.Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, Wageningen 6708 PB, The Netherlands. henry.kariithi@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT
The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae) is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae) collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics) and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pathology of hytrosaviruses: (A) Normal (Nsg) and hypertrophied (Hsg) salivary glands dissected from G. pallidipes. It should be noted that the pair of Nsg are dissected from a different fly for comparison with the Hsg. Notice that the glands exhibiting salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms are enlarged ≥5 times the size of normal glands; (B) Male G. pallidipes with asymptomatic (i) and symptomatic (ii) salivary glands; (C) Female M. domestica with healthy and (D) hypertrophied salivary glands showing lack of ovarian development in the virus-infected fly (D). Abbreviations: Mg, midgut; Ov, ovary; Sg, salivary gland. (Figure sources: Panel A [28]; panel B [110]; panels C and D [111]; used with permission).
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insects-04-00287-f002: Pathology of hytrosaviruses: (A) Normal (Nsg) and hypertrophied (Hsg) salivary glands dissected from G. pallidipes. It should be noted that the pair of Nsg are dissected from a different fly for comparison with the Hsg. Notice that the glands exhibiting salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms are enlarged ≥5 times the size of normal glands; (B) Male G. pallidipes with asymptomatic (i) and symptomatic (ii) salivary glands; (C) Female M. domestica with healthy and (D) hypertrophied salivary glands showing lack of ovarian development in the virus-infected fly (D). Abbreviations: Mg, midgut; Ov, ovary; Sg, salivary gland. (Figure sources: Panel A [28]; panel B [110]; panels C and D [111]; used with permission).

Mentions: As indicated in Section 3, dipteran adults infected by hytrosaviruses can exhibit overt SGH symptoms. Flies with SGH are recognizable to the naked eye by the swollen opaque-white appearance of the abdomen, and sac-like course textures [55,60] (Figure 2).


Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae).

Kariithi HM, van Oers MM, Vlak JM, Vreysen MJ, Parker AG, Abd-Alla AM - Insects (2013)

Pathology of hytrosaviruses: (A) Normal (Nsg) and hypertrophied (Hsg) salivary glands dissected from G. pallidipes. It should be noted that the pair of Nsg are dissected from a different fly for comparison with the Hsg. Notice that the glands exhibiting salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms are enlarged ≥5 times the size of normal glands; (B) Male G. pallidipes with asymptomatic (i) and symptomatic (ii) salivary glands; (C) Female M. domestica with healthy and (D) hypertrophied salivary glands showing lack of ovarian development in the virus-infected fly (D). Abbreviations: Mg, midgut; Ov, ovary; Sg, salivary gland. (Figure sources: Panel A [28]; panel B [110]; panels C and D [111]; used with permission).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553466&req=5

insects-04-00287-f002: Pathology of hytrosaviruses: (A) Normal (Nsg) and hypertrophied (Hsg) salivary glands dissected from G. pallidipes. It should be noted that the pair of Nsg are dissected from a different fly for comparison with the Hsg. Notice that the glands exhibiting salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms are enlarged ≥5 times the size of normal glands; (B) Male G. pallidipes with asymptomatic (i) and symptomatic (ii) salivary glands; (C) Female M. domestica with healthy and (D) hypertrophied salivary glands showing lack of ovarian development in the virus-infected fly (D). Abbreviations: Mg, midgut; Ov, ovary; Sg, salivary gland. (Figure sources: Panel A [28]; panel B [110]; panels C and D [111]; used with permission).
Mentions: As indicated in Section 3, dipteran adults infected by hytrosaviruses can exhibit overt SGH symptoms. Flies with SGH are recognizable to the naked eye by the swollen opaque-white appearance of the abdomen, and sac-like course textures [55,60] (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach.The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities.Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, Wageningen 6708 PB, The Netherlands. henry.kariithi@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT
The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae) is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae) collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics) and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus