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Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan.

Aoki K, Kato M, Murakami N - Insects (2011)

Bottom Line: A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan.Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods.These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. aoki@sys.bot.kyoto-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The western-eastern differentiated pattern observed in the main islands of Japan. Many plants and insects inhabiting Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forests share this pattern with a major phylogeographic break typically occurring at various points in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region around the Seto Inland Sea (modified from references shown in Table 1). (a–d) Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotypes found among four plant species of broadleaved evergreen trees. (e) Geographic distribution of the UPGMA clusters found among EST-SSR markers of Ca. sieboldii, the dominant tree. (f–h) Geographic distribution of mtDNA clades found among three weevil species associated with Castanopsis.
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f2-insects-02-00128: The western-eastern differentiated pattern observed in the main islands of Japan. Many plants and insects inhabiting Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forests share this pattern with a major phylogeographic break typically occurring at various points in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region around the Seto Inland Sea (modified from references shown in Table 1). (a–d) Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotypes found among four plant species of broadleaved evergreen trees. (e) Geographic distribution of the UPGMA clusters found among EST-SSR markers of Ca. sieboldii, the dominant tree. (f–h) Geographic distribution of mtDNA clades found among three weevil species associated with Castanopsis.

Mentions: The geographic distribution patterns of cpDNA haplotypes from several broadleaved evergreen species showed no clear geographical structuring (Table 1). The molecular evolutionary rate of cpDNA has been reported to be relatively slow at the nucleotide sequence level [24–26]. In fact, the molecular evolutionary rate of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnT-trnL, trnL-trnF, atpB-rbcL, rps16, trnG, psbC-trnS, trnG-trnfM, trnW-trnP, petB, petD-rpoA, rpl16) that are often used for phylogeographic analyses is also slow, i.e., 1.2 × 10−10 (including indels) and 7.7 × 10−11 (nucleotide substitutions only) substitutions per site per year [32], or one nucleotide substitution every two million years per site on average. In general, relatively low levels of cpDNA variation are usually found within species. Moreover, extremely low levels of intraspecific variation in cpDNA were reported in Japanese broadleaved evergreen species [27,28] than in plants growing in other vegetation zones, i.e., broadleaved deciduous species [48] and alpine species [49]. This result suggests that the effects of climate change are particularly severe for members of the broadleaved evergreen forests community in the warm-temperate zone. Nevertheless, the geographic distribution patterns of cpDNA haplotypes in several plant species (Table 1, Figure 2a,c,d) and the clusters found among the EST-SSR variation of Ca. sieboldii (Figure 2e) clearly differentiated populations between the western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. Moreover, P. zippeliana (Figure 2b) and Ca. sieboldii (Figure 2e) showed genetic uniqueness in the Ryukyu Islands. This apparent geographical structuring was observed in the tree species, especially in the dominant species, rather than in herbs or ferns.


Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan.

Aoki K, Kato M, Murakami N - Insects (2011)

The western-eastern differentiated pattern observed in the main islands of Japan. Many plants and insects inhabiting Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forests share this pattern with a major phylogeographic break typically occurring at various points in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region around the Seto Inland Sea (modified from references shown in Table 1). (a–d) Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotypes found among four plant species of broadleaved evergreen trees. (e) Geographic distribution of the UPGMA clusters found among EST-SSR markers of Ca. sieboldii, the dominant tree. (f–h) Geographic distribution of mtDNA clades found among three weevil species associated with Castanopsis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553454&req=5

f2-insects-02-00128: The western-eastern differentiated pattern observed in the main islands of Japan. Many plants and insects inhabiting Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forests share this pattern with a major phylogeographic break typically occurring at various points in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region around the Seto Inland Sea (modified from references shown in Table 1). (a–d) Geographic distribution of cpDNA haplotypes found among four plant species of broadleaved evergreen trees. (e) Geographic distribution of the UPGMA clusters found among EST-SSR markers of Ca. sieboldii, the dominant tree. (f–h) Geographic distribution of mtDNA clades found among three weevil species associated with Castanopsis.
Mentions: The geographic distribution patterns of cpDNA haplotypes from several broadleaved evergreen species showed no clear geographical structuring (Table 1). The molecular evolutionary rate of cpDNA has been reported to be relatively slow at the nucleotide sequence level [24–26]. In fact, the molecular evolutionary rate of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnT-trnL, trnL-trnF, atpB-rbcL, rps16, trnG, psbC-trnS, trnG-trnfM, trnW-trnP, petB, petD-rpoA, rpl16) that are often used for phylogeographic analyses is also slow, i.e., 1.2 × 10−10 (including indels) and 7.7 × 10−11 (nucleotide substitutions only) substitutions per site per year [32], or one nucleotide substitution every two million years per site on average. In general, relatively low levels of cpDNA variation are usually found within species. Moreover, extremely low levels of intraspecific variation in cpDNA were reported in Japanese broadleaved evergreen species [27,28] than in plants growing in other vegetation zones, i.e., broadleaved deciduous species [48] and alpine species [49]. This result suggests that the effects of climate change are particularly severe for members of the broadleaved evergreen forests community in the warm-temperate zone. Nevertheless, the geographic distribution patterns of cpDNA haplotypes in several plant species (Table 1, Figure 2a,c,d) and the clusters found among the EST-SSR variation of Ca. sieboldii (Figure 2e) clearly differentiated populations between the western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. Moreover, P. zippeliana (Figure 2b) and Ca. sieboldii (Figure 2e) showed genetic uniqueness in the Ryukyu Islands. This apparent geographical structuring was observed in the tree species, especially in the dominant species, rather than in herbs or ferns.

Bottom Line: A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan.Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods.These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. aoki@sys.bot.kyoto-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus