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Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar.

Miraldo A, Wirta H, Hanski I - Insects (2011)

Bottom Line: We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles.Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa.The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Metapopulation Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, Finland. andreia.miraldo@helsinki.fi.

ABSTRACT
Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

No MeSH data available.


Haplotype networks (mitochondrial COI, 700 bp) for four common species of dung beetles sampled in two nearby (∼40 km) localities in northeastern Madagascar, the Marojejy National Park (represented in white) and the Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (represented in black). The species are (a) Helictopleurus obscurus, (b) Helictopleurus rudicollis, (c) Epilissus emmae and (d) Epilissus splendidus. Numbers inside circles represent the number of individuals with that haplotype. In (d) numbers ‘10’ and ‘27’ represent the number of mutational steps between the adjacent haplotypes. Small black circles represent unsampled or extinct haplotypes.
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f1-insects-02-00112: Haplotype networks (mitochondrial COI, 700 bp) for four common species of dung beetles sampled in two nearby (∼40 km) localities in northeastern Madagascar, the Marojejy National Park (represented in white) and the Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (represented in black). The species are (a) Helictopleurus obscurus, (b) Helictopleurus rudicollis, (c) Epilissus emmae and (d) Epilissus splendidus. Numbers inside circles represent the number of individuals with that haplotype. In (d) numbers ‘10’ and ‘27’ represent the number of mutational steps between the adjacent haplotypes. Small black circles represent unsampled or extinct haplotypes.

Mentions: Knopp et al. [31] compared dung beetle species composition and genetic differentiation between populations on the two sides of the Mangoro River, the largest river on the east coast, but found little support for the hypothesis of rivers functioning as dispersal barriers and influencing patterns of microendemism in dung beetles [31]. Another recent study compared levels of genetic differentiation between two nearby (∼40 km) forest localities in northeast Madagascar (Marojejy and Anjanaharibe-Sud) and found contrasting patterns in different species (M. Miinala, unpubl. data). While Helictopleurus obscurus and H. rudicollis showed little or no genetic differentiation between the localities, Epilissus emmae and E. splendidus showed marked structure in the distribution of genetic variation with no haplotypes being shared between the two localities (Figure 1). These results suggest that there is substantial genetic differentiation among populations within small spatial scale in some groups of dung beetles but not in others.


Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar.

Miraldo A, Wirta H, Hanski I - Insects (2011)

Haplotype networks (mitochondrial COI, 700 bp) for four common species of dung beetles sampled in two nearby (∼40 km) localities in northeastern Madagascar, the Marojejy National Park (represented in white) and the Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (represented in black). The species are (a) Helictopleurus obscurus, (b) Helictopleurus rudicollis, (c) Epilissus emmae and (d) Epilissus splendidus. Numbers inside circles represent the number of individuals with that haplotype. In (d) numbers ‘10’ and ‘27’ represent the number of mutational steps between the adjacent haplotypes. Small black circles represent unsampled or extinct haplotypes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553453&req=5

f1-insects-02-00112: Haplotype networks (mitochondrial COI, 700 bp) for four common species of dung beetles sampled in two nearby (∼40 km) localities in northeastern Madagascar, the Marojejy National Park (represented in white) and the Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (represented in black). The species are (a) Helictopleurus obscurus, (b) Helictopleurus rudicollis, (c) Epilissus emmae and (d) Epilissus splendidus. Numbers inside circles represent the number of individuals with that haplotype. In (d) numbers ‘10’ and ‘27’ represent the number of mutational steps between the adjacent haplotypes. Small black circles represent unsampled or extinct haplotypes.
Mentions: Knopp et al. [31] compared dung beetle species composition and genetic differentiation between populations on the two sides of the Mangoro River, the largest river on the east coast, but found little support for the hypothesis of rivers functioning as dispersal barriers and influencing patterns of microendemism in dung beetles [31]. Another recent study compared levels of genetic differentiation between two nearby (∼40 km) forest localities in northeast Madagascar (Marojejy and Anjanaharibe-Sud) and found contrasting patterns in different species (M. Miinala, unpubl. data). While Helictopleurus obscurus and H. rudicollis showed little or no genetic differentiation between the localities, Epilissus emmae and E. splendidus showed marked structure in the distribution of genetic variation with no haplotypes being shared between the two localities (Figure 1). These results suggest that there is substantial genetic differentiation among populations within small spatial scale in some groups of dung beetles but not in others.

Bottom Line: We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles.Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa.The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Metapopulation Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, Finland. andreia.miraldo@helsinki.fi.

ABSTRACT
Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

No MeSH data available.