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Adopting Bacteria in Order to Adapt to Water-How Reed Beetles Colonized the Wetlands (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae).

Kleinschmidt B, Kölsch G - Insects (2011)

Bottom Line: Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous.They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots.The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Institute, Molecular Evolutionary Biology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. birgit.kleinschmidt@gmx.net.

ABSTRACT
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pupation rate of Macroplea larvae of different size at the beginning of the experiment, after tetracycline treatment and without application of antibiotics (control), respectively. Size classes are defined in the text, sample sizes are given in Table 1.
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f3-insects-02-00540: Pupation rate of Macroplea larvae of different size at the beginning of the experiment, after tetracycline treatment and without application of antibiotics (control), respectively. Size classes are defined in the text, sample sizes are given in Table 1.

Mentions: Pupation was not uniformly distributed over the larval size classes (Figure 3; all size data refer to the situation at the onset of the experiment). While in the control group the pupation rate increased with size class, in the treatment group the opposite was the case. The interpretation is a follows: the small larvae may not have reached maturity by the time the experiment was finished (which explains a moderate to low pupation rate in both groups). Still, for small larvae in the treatment group the pupation rate is higher than for bigger ones, because in the larvae treated at an earlier stage the bacteria could recover. The bigger larvae could not pupate, because when they reached maturity relatively shortly after treatment, the bacteria had not proliferated in the organs relevant for pupation (blind sacs) due to the antibiotic. Tetracycline, although successfully used in similar studies, is only a cytostatic, and over the two months of our experiments the bacteria may have regained their full metabolic activity in the small larvae.


Adopting Bacteria in Order to Adapt to Water-How Reed Beetles Colonized the Wetlands (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae).

Kleinschmidt B, Kölsch G - Insects (2011)

Pupation rate of Macroplea larvae of different size at the beginning of the experiment, after tetracycline treatment and without application of antibiotics (control), respectively. Size classes are defined in the text, sample sizes are given in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553447&req=5

f3-insects-02-00540: Pupation rate of Macroplea larvae of different size at the beginning of the experiment, after tetracycline treatment and without application of antibiotics (control), respectively. Size classes are defined in the text, sample sizes are given in Table 1.
Mentions: Pupation was not uniformly distributed over the larval size classes (Figure 3; all size data refer to the situation at the onset of the experiment). While in the control group the pupation rate increased with size class, in the treatment group the opposite was the case. The interpretation is a follows: the small larvae may not have reached maturity by the time the experiment was finished (which explains a moderate to low pupation rate in both groups). Still, for small larvae in the treatment group the pupation rate is higher than for bigger ones, because in the larvae treated at an earlier stage the bacteria could recover. The bigger larvae could not pupate, because when they reached maturity relatively shortly after treatment, the bacteria had not proliferated in the organs relevant for pupation (blind sacs) due to the antibiotic. Tetracycline, although successfully used in similar studies, is only a cytostatic, and over the two months of our experiments the bacteria may have regained their full metabolic activity in the small larvae.

Bottom Line: Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous.They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots.The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Institute, Molecular Evolutionary Biology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. birgit.kleinschmidt@gmx.net.

ABSTRACT
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus