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Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) among Three Commercial Wood Species.

Hapukotuwa NK, Grace JK - Insects (2011)

Bottom Line: A multiple-choice (three-choice) assay was used for four weeks (28 days) in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72-80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers) were released into each test jar.Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure) to 10 (sound) scale.There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore Hall 310, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. nirmala@hawaii.edu.

ABSTRACT
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009) to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice) assay was used for four weeks (28 days) in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72-80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers) were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure) to 10 (sound) scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

No MeSH data available.


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Tunnel network of C. gestroi.
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f2-insects-02-00499: Tunnel network of C. gestroi.

Mentions: Visual observations supported the differences between the two species in their tunnel networks noted by Grace et al. [23]. Coptotermes gestroi made large numbers of narrow, highly branched tunnels; whereas C. formosanus made fewer, wider, and less branched tunnels (Figures 2 and 3). During the first weekly inspection period we observed that both species of termites contacted all types of wood, and some moved to the bottom of the jars and began to make tunnels. Also, both species began to feed upon Douglas fir and southern yellow pine. We also noted that C. gestroi made tunnels all the way to the top of some jars, while C. formosanus made a small number of tunnels, extending only halfway up the jars. During the second inspection period, most jars with C. gestroi were filled with sand tunnels, and some of the wood blocks of all three species were covered completely with sand. This made it difficult to accurately record the sequence of feeding patterns and consumption rates. With C. formosanus, we observed that some jars contained tunnels reaching all the way to the top, but jars were not as extensively tunneled as with C. gestroi. Coptotermes formosanus excavated fewer, wider tunnels and it was difficult to estimate feeding rates by looking through those jars. Only one block of redwood was covered completely with sand. During the third week, almost all of the jars with C. gestroi were covered completely with large numbers of tiny, highly branched tunnels; whereas C. formosanus made few long tunnels with less branching in 60% of all jars. Also, C. formosanus covered most of the redwood blocks with sand, while C. gestroi did not cover the redwood blocks. In all wood blocks attacked by C. formosanus we noted that they fed mostly on the outer parts (very slightly in redwood). Coptotermes gestroi, however, mostly fed on middle parts of the wood blocks, and they made a larger number of small holes and small narrow tunnels in all blocks (Figures 4, 5 and 6).


Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) among Three Commercial Wood Species.

Hapukotuwa NK, Grace JK - Insects (2011)

Tunnel network of C. gestroi.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553443&req=5

f2-insects-02-00499: Tunnel network of C. gestroi.
Mentions: Visual observations supported the differences between the two species in their tunnel networks noted by Grace et al. [23]. Coptotermes gestroi made large numbers of narrow, highly branched tunnels; whereas C. formosanus made fewer, wider, and less branched tunnels (Figures 2 and 3). During the first weekly inspection period we observed that both species of termites contacted all types of wood, and some moved to the bottom of the jars and began to make tunnels. Also, both species began to feed upon Douglas fir and southern yellow pine. We also noted that C. gestroi made tunnels all the way to the top of some jars, while C. formosanus made a small number of tunnels, extending only halfway up the jars. During the second inspection period, most jars with C. gestroi were filled with sand tunnels, and some of the wood blocks of all three species were covered completely with sand. This made it difficult to accurately record the sequence of feeding patterns and consumption rates. With C. formosanus, we observed that some jars contained tunnels reaching all the way to the top, but jars were not as extensively tunneled as with C. gestroi. Coptotermes formosanus excavated fewer, wider tunnels and it was difficult to estimate feeding rates by looking through those jars. Only one block of redwood was covered completely with sand. During the third week, almost all of the jars with C. gestroi were covered completely with large numbers of tiny, highly branched tunnels; whereas C. formosanus made few long tunnels with less branching in 60% of all jars. Also, C. formosanus covered most of the redwood blocks with sand, while C. gestroi did not cover the redwood blocks. In all wood blocks attacked by C. formosanus we noted that they fed mostly on the outer parts (very slightly in redwood). Coptotermes gestroi, however, mostly fed on middle parts of the wood blocks, and they made a larger number of small holes and small narrow tunnels in all blocks (Figures 4, 5 and 6).

Bottom Line: A multiple-choice (three-choice) assay was used for four weeks (28 days) in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72-80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers) were released into each test jar.Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure) to 10 (sound) scale.There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore Hall 310, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. nirmala@hawaii.edu.

ABSTRACT
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009) to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice) assay was used for four weeks (28 days) in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72-80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers) were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure) to 10 (sound) scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus