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Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates.

Onufrieva KS, Thorpe KW, Hickman AD, Leonard DS, Roberts EA, Tobin PC - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination.However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates.Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ksenia@vt.edu.

ABSTRACT
Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GM(TM), in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Residual amount of pheromone left in Hercon Disrupt® II plastic flakes after 10 weeks of exposure during the summer flight period and in the following year in VA and WI. The residual amounts of disparlure are shown as percentages based on control dispensers.
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insects-04-00104-f002: Residual amount of pheromone left in Hercon Disrupt® II plastic flakes after 10 weeks of exposure during the summer flight period and in the following year in VA and WI. The residual amounts of disparlure are shown as percentages based on control dispensers.

Mentions: Prior to the field studies, we first conducted a preliminary experiment in 2004 at one site in Bayfield County in northern WI, USA (46.5358° N, 91.1953° W) and at one site in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Appomattox County, VA (37.54167°N, 78.45889°W) to quantify residual pheromone concentration at the end of male moth flight period and at the beginning of the next year. We glued 20 Hercon Disrupt® II flakes impregnated with disparlure to 125 10 × 20 cm canvas coated paper cards (Strathmore Paper Co., Westfield, MA) using a multipolymer emulsion glue that is used as a sticking agent in aerial applications of Disrupt® II (Gelva 2333, Solutia Inc., Springfield, MA, USA). Twenty five of these cards were placed immediately in a freezer (–10 °C) for use as a control. At each site, 50 cards were hung on lines under the canopy, approximately 1.5 m from the ground, at the beginning of each site’s male moth flight period. After 10 weeks, 25 cards were collected and placed in a freezer. Following leaf drop, the remaining cards were then covered with litter and placed into window screen cages and left on the ground over the winter until the following April. The amount of residual pheromone was determined using a Model 6C-9A gas chromatograph (Shimadzu Instruments, Columbia, MD) [34]. We observed that at the end of the flight season, roughly twice as much pheromone was left in the flakes deployed in WI than those deployed in VA. Following the winter, the flakes deployed in WI still had ≈4 times more pheromone than those deployed in VA (Figure 2). Because these results indicated a slower release rate at our colder site, we hypothesized that the efficacy of mating disruption treatments, which depend upon a sufficient quantity of pheromone being released to disrupt mating communication, could be affected by climate. Consequently, we designed a study to directly compare first- and second-year effects of mating disruption treatments in VA and Northern WI.


Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates.

Onufrieva KS, Thorpe KW, Hickman AD, Leonard DS, Roberts EA, Tobin PC - Insects (2013)

Residual amount of pheromone left in Hercon Disrupt® II plastic flakes after 10 weeks of exposure during the summer flight period and in the following year in VA and WI. The residual amounts of disparlure are shown as percentages based on control dispensers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553432&req=5

insects-04-00104-f002: Residual amount of pheromone left in Hercon Disrupt® II plastic flakes after 10 weeks of exposure during the summer flight period and in the following year in VA and WI. The residual amounts of disparlure are shown as percentages based on control dispensers.
Mentions: Prior to the field studies, we first conducted a preliminary experiment in 2004 at one site in Bayfield County in northern WI, USA (46.5358° N, 91.1953° W) and at one site in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Appomattox County, VA (37.54167°N, 78.45889°W) to quantify residual pheromone concentration at the end of male moth flight period and at the beginning of the next year. We glued 20 Hercon Disrupt® II flakes impregnated with disparlure to 125 10 × 20 cm canvas coated paper cards (Strathmore Paper Co., Westfield, MA) using a multipolymer emulsion glue that is used as a sticking agent in aerial applications of Disrupt® II (Gelva 2333, Solutia Inc., Springfield, MA, USA). Twenty five of these cards were placed immediately in a freezer (–10 °C) for use as a control. At each site, 50 cards were hung on lines under the canopy, approximately 1.5 m from the ground, at the beginning of each site’s male moth flight period. After 10 weeks, 25 cards were collected and placed in a freezer. Following leaf drop, the remaining cards were then covered with litter and placed into window screen cages and left on the ground over the winter until the following April. The amount of residual pheromone was determined using a Model 6C-9A gas chromatograph (Shimadzu Instruments, Columbia, MD) [34]. We observed that at the end of the flight season, roughly twice as much pheromone was left in the flakes deployed in WI than those deployed in VA. Following the winter, the flakes deployed in WI still had ≈4 times more pheromone than those deployed in VA (Figure 2). Because these results indicated a slower release rate at our colder site, we hypothesized that the efficacy of mating disruption treatments, which depend upon a sufficient quantity of pheromone being released to disrupt mating communication, could be affected by climate. Consequently, we designed a study to directly compare first- and second-year effects of mating disruption treatments in VA and Northern WI.

Bottom Line: The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination.However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates.Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ksenia@vt.edu.

ABSTRACT
Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GM(TM), in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus