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Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates.

Onufrieva KS, Thorpe KW, Hickman AD, Leonard DS, Roberts EA, Tobin PC - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination.However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates.Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ksenia@vt.edu.

ABSTRACT
Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GM(TM), in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Generalized plot layout for the short- and long-term pheromone persistence (A) and pheromone persistence between two climate regimes (B) experiments.
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insects-04-00104-f001: Generalized plot layout for the short- and long-term pheromone persistence (A) and pheromone persistence between two climate regimes (B) experiments.

Mentions: In our short-term plots, we applied Luretape® GM at a rate of 75 g active ingredient (AI)/ha and at a density of 40 point sources per ha. Luretape® GM was applied by tying 90 cm long strips of the dispenser to tree branches ≈2 m from the ground on June 21, 2006. We evaluated the effect of the pheromone on L. dispar mating success by deploying tethered females. Fifteen laboratory-reared virgin females (≤24 hours old) were placed on tree boles 1.5 m from the ground and protected from predation by a band of duct tape covered with Tanglefoot bird repellent (The Tanglefoot Company, Grand Rapids, MI, USA). Females were deployed for 24 hours four times a week in a 50-m radius circle around adult male release points, which were located at the centers of the treated and control plots (Figure 1A) [31]. Collected females were maintained under laboratory conditions for at least 60 days to allow for embryonization. Egg masses were individually inspected to ascertain successful mating [32]. Laboratory-reared males (≈150) were released twice a week at the time of female deployment. We monitored the experimental and control plots for 3 consecutive iterations. An iteration consisted of 2 weeks: one week with the Luretape® GM present in the experimental plots followed by a week with the Luretape® GM removed from the plots.


Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates.

Onufrieva KS, Thorpe KW, Hickman AD, Leonard DS, Roberts EA, Tobin PC - Insects (2013)

Generalized plot layout for the short- and long-term pheromone persistence (A) and pheromone persistence between two climate regimes (B) experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553432&req=5

insects-04-00104-f001: Generalized plot layout for the short- and long-term pheromone persistence (A) and pheromone persistence between two climate regimes (B) experiments.
Mentions: In our short-term plots, we applied Luretape® GM at a rate of 75 g active ingredient (AI)/ha and at a density of 40 point sources per ha. Luretape® GM was applied by tying 90 cm long strips of the dispenser to tree branches ≈2 m from the ground on June 21, 2006. We evaluated the effect of the pheromone on L. dispar mating success by deploying tethered females. Fifteen laboratory-reared virgin females (≤24 hours old) were placed on tree boles 1.5 m from the ground and protected from predation by a band of duct tape covered with Tanglefoot bird repellent (The Tanglefoot Company, Grand Rapids, MI, USA). Females were deployed for 24 hours four times a week in a 50-m radius circle around adult male release points, which were located at the centers of the treated and control plots (Figure 1A) [31]. Collected females were maintained under laboratory conditions for at least 60 days to allow for embryonization. Egg masses were individually inspected to ascertain successful mating [32]. Laboratory-reared males (≈150) were released twice a week at the time of female deployment. We monitored the experimental and control plots for 3 consecutive iterations. An iteration consisted of 2 weeks: one week with the Luretape® GM present in the experimental plots followed by a week with the Luretape® GM removed from the plots.

Bottom Line: The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination.However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates.Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ksenia@vt.edu.

ABSTRACT
Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GM(TM), in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus