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The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fold increase in deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV) titers relative to the nurse bees sampled while tending queen cells. (A) and (B) are from queens reared from grafts of larvae from outside colonies and reared in either outside colonies or those in an enclosed flight area fed pollen-1 (chlorpyrifos) or pollen-2 (chlorpyrifos with added Pristine®). (C) and (D) are from larvae grafted from and reared into queens in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or reared in outside colonies. Estimates of virus titers were made from 3 queen larvae and 3 virgin queens in each treatment group with the exception of outside larvae that were reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed. Estimates of virus titers in nurse bees were based on samples of 9–15 bees per treatment group.
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insects-04-00071-f007: Fold increase in deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV) titers relative to the nurse bees sampled while tending queen cells. (A) and (B) are from queens reared from grafts of larvae from outside colonies and reared in either outside colonies or those in an enclosed flight area fed pollen-1 (chlorpyrifos) or pollen-2 (chlorpyrifos with added Pristine®). (C) and (D) are from larvae grafted from and reared into queens in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or reared in outside colonies. Estimates of virus titers were made from 3 queen larvae and 3 virgin queens in each treatment group with the exception of outside larvae that were reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed. Estimates of virus titers in nurse bees were based on samples of 9–15 bees per treatment group.

Mentions: In general, fold increases of virus were higher when larvae were grafted from and reared into queens in EFA colonies compared with outside colonies (Figure 7). The prevalence of DWV in queen larvae grafted from and reared in outside colonies was similar to that of the nurse bees (i.e., fold increase were close to 1.0) and significantly lower with respect to the fold increase, than in larvae being reared in pollen-1 or 2 colonies (F2,5 = 26.54, p = 0.002). We did not detect DWV or BQCV in virgin queens reared in outside colonies. In contrast, the prevalence of DWV and BQCV in queen larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 was about 1.5 times higher than the nurse bees tending the queen cells. However, fold differences in DWV (F3,10 = 1.15, p = 0.377) and BQCV in queen larvae did not differ among the treatments (F3,10 = 0.88, p = 0.482) The prevalence of DWV and BQCV in the virgin queens were similar to or lower than the queen larvae. Fold differences in both DWV (F3,7 = 0.77, p = 0.548) and BQCV in emerged (virgin) queens did not differ among treatments (F3,6 = 0.39, p = 0.694; BQCV titers in outside larvae reared in pollen-2 colonies were not included in the analysis because only one queen tested positive for the virus).


The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Fold increase in deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV) titers relative to the nurse bees sampled while tending queen cells. (A) and (B) are from queens reared from grafts of larvae from outside colonies and reared in either outside colonies or those in an enclosed flight area fed pollen-1 (chlorpyrifos) or pollen-2 (chlorpyrifos with added Pristine®). (C) and (D) are from larvae grafted from and reared into queens in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or reared in outside colonies. Estimates of virus titers were made from 3 queen larvae and 3 virgin queens in each treatment group with the exception of outside larvae that were reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed. Estimates of virus titers in nurse bees were based on samples of 9–15 bees per treatment group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553430&req=5

insects-04-00071-f007: Fold increase in deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV) titers relative to the nurse bees sampled while tending queen cells. (A) and (B) are from queens reared from grafts of larvae from outside colonies and reared in either outside colonies or those in an enclosed flight area fed pollen-1 (chlorpyrifos) or pollen-2 (chlorpyrifos with added Pristine®). (C) and (D) are from larvae grafted from and reared into queens in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or reared in outside colonies. Estimates of virus titers were made from 3 queen larvae and 3 virgin queens in each treatment group with the exception of outside larvae that were reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed. Estimates of virus titers in nurse bees were based on samples of 9–15 bees per treatment group.
Mentions: In general, fold increases of virus were higher when larvae were grafted from and reared into queens in EFA colonies compared with outside colonies (Figure 7). The prevalence of DWV in queen larvae grafted from and reared in outside colonies was similar to that of the nurse bees (i.e., fold increase were close to 1.0) and significantly lower with respect to the fold increase, than in larvae being reared in pollen-1 or 2 colonies (F2,5 = 26.54, p = 0.002). We did not detect DWV or BQCV in virgin queens reared in outside colonies. In contrast, the prevalence of DWV and BQCV in queen larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 was about 1.5 times higher than the nurse bees tending the queen cells. However, fold differences in DWV (F3,10 = 1.15, p = 0.377) and BQCV in queen larvae did not differ among the treatments (F3,10 = 0.88, p = 0.482) The prevalence of DWV and BQCV in the virgin queens were similar to or lower than the queen larvae. Fold differences in both DWV (F3,7 = 0.77, p = 0.548) and BQCV in emerged (virgin) queens did not differ among treatments (F3,6 = 0.39, p = 0.694; BQCV titers in outside larvae reared in pollen-2 colonies were not included in the analysis because only one queen tested positive for the virus).

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus