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The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). The nurse bees were sampled while tending the queen cells containing the queen larvae that were tested. Percentages are based on samples of 12 nurse bees, three queen larvae, and three virgin from each treatment group. The exception was outside larvae reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed.
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insects-04-00071-f006: Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). The nurse bees were sampled while tending the queen cells containing the queen larvae that were tested. Percentages are based on samples of 12 nurse bees, three queen larvae, and three virgin from each treatment group. The exception was outside larvae reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed.

Mentions: In Experiment-2, DWV was detected in all nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens in the outside colonies and those in the EFA (Figure 6). BQCV was detected in 83% of the nurse bees in outside colonies and in all of those sampled in the EFA. These percentages were not significantly different (X2 = 2.18, p = 0.336). More than half of the queen larvae reared in outside colonies and all of those reared in the EFA had BQCV. All virgin queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 and half of those grafted from colonies fed pollen-2 that were reared in outside colonies had BQCV. The virus also was detected in 67% of the virgin queens grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 and 33% of those fed pollen-2.


The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). The nurse bees were sampled while tending the queen cells containing the queen larvae that were tested. Percentages are based on samples of 12 nurse bees, three queen larvae, and three virgin from each treatment group. The exception was outside larvae reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553430&req=5

insects-04-00071-f006: Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). The nurse bees were sampled while tending the queen cells containing the queen larvae that were tested. Percentages are based on samples of 12 nurse bees, three queen larvae, and three virgin from each treatment group. The exception was outside larvae reared in colonies fed pollen-2 where two virgin queens were analyzed.
Mentions: In Experiment-2, DWV was detected in all nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens in the outside colonies and those in the EFA (Figure 6). BQCV was detected in 83% of the nurse bees in outside colonies and in all of those sampled in the EFA. These percentages were not significantly different (X2 = 2.18, p = 0.336). More than half of the queen larvae reared in outside colonies and all of those reared in the EFA had BQCV. All virgin queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 and half of those grafted from colonies fed pollen-2 that were reared in outside colonies had BQCV. The virus also was detected in 67% of the virgin queens grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 and 33% of those fed pollen-2.

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus