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The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). Percentages of nurse bees with virus were based on samples of 9 nurse bees from outside colonies, 12 from colonies fed pollen-1 and 15 from those fed pollen-2. Nurse bees were sampled from those tending the queen cells. The percentages of queen larvae and virgin queens were analyzed based on three samples from colonies in each treatment group. Percentages with an asterisk are significantly different at p < 0.05 as determined by a Chi-square goodness of fit test.
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insects-04-00071-f005: Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). Percentages of nurse bees with virus were based on samples of 9 nurse bees from outside colonies, 12 from colonies fed pollen-1 and 15 from those fed pollen-2. Nurse bees were sampled from those tending the queen cells. The percentages of queen larvae and virgin queens were analyzed based on three samples from colonies in each treatment group. Percentages with an asterisk are significantly different at p < 0.05 as determined by a Chi-square goodness of fit test.

Mentions: In Experiment-1, DWV was found in all nurse bees tending the queen cells in outside colonies and in the EFA (pollen-1 and pollen-2) (Figure 5). All samples of royal jelly in the queen cells (n = 3 for each treatment group) also tested positive for DWV (data not shown). BQCV was detected more frequently in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-2 than in outside colonies (X2 = 8.0, p = 0.018) or in those fed pollen-1 (X2 = 14.2, p = 0.001). All royal jelly samples from outside colonies had BQCV and 33% and 67% of those from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 respectively. IAPV was detected only in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-2 (13.3%), but it was present in 67% of the royal jelly samples from colonies fed pollen-1 and 33% of those fed pollen-2. DWV was found in most of the queen larvae reared in outside colonies and all of those reared in the EFA. BQCV was detected only in queen larvae reared in outside colonies. Some virgin queens reared in the EFA tested positive for DWV, but neither DWV nor BQCV were found in virgin queens reared in outside colonies.


The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). Percentages of nurse bees with virus were based on samples of 9 nurse bees from outside colonies, 12 from colonies fed pollen-1 and 15 from those fed pollen-2. Nurse bees were sampled from those tending the queen cells. The percentages of queen larvae and virgin queens were analyzed based on three samples from colonies in each treatment group. Percentages with an asterisk are significantly different at p < 0.05 as determined by a Chi-square goodness of fit test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553430&req=5

insects-04-00071-f005: Nurse bees, queen larvae and virgin queens with deformed wing virus (DWV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV). Samples were taken from open foraging colonies in an apiary (outside) or foraging in an enclosed flight are (EFA) and fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (pollen-1) or with added Pristine® fungicide (pollen-2). Percentages of nurse bees with virus were based on samples of 9 nurse bees from outside colonies, 12 from colonies fed pollen-1 and 15 from those fed pollen-2. Nurse bees were sampled from those tending the queen cells. The percentages of queen larvae and virgin queens were analyzed based on three samples from colonies in each treatment group. Percentages with an asterisk are significantly different at p < 0.05 as determined by a Chi-square goodness of fit test.
Mentions: In Experiment-1, DWV was found in all nurse bees tending the queen cells in outside colonies and in the EFA (pollen-1 and pollen-2) (Figure 5). All samples of royal jelly in the queen cells (n = 3 for each treatment group) also tested positive for DWV (data not shown). BQCV was detected more frequently in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-2 than in outside colonies (X2 = 8.0, p = 0.018) or in those fed pollen-1 (X2 = 14.2, p = 0.001). All royal jelly samples from outside colonies had BQCV and 33% and 67% of those from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 respectively. IAPV was detected only in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-2 (13.3%), but it was present in 67% of the royal jelly samples from colonies fed pollen-1 and 33% of those fed pollen-2. DWV was found in most of the queen larvae reared in outside colonies and all of those reared in the EFA. BQCV was detected only in queen larvae reared in outside colonies. Some virgin queens reared in the EFA tested positive for DWV, but neither DWV nor BQCV were found in virgin queens reared in outside colonies.

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus