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The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The percentage of queen cells that were capped and had emerged queens when larvae were grafted from colonies in an enclosed flight area (EFA) that were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (Pollen-1), or with chlorpyrifos and Pristine® fungicide (Pollen-2). The larvae were reared into queens in the colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or in open foraging colonies outside the EFA (Outside). Percentages of larvae grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage did not differ between those reared in colonies fed pollen-1 (57.9%) or in outside colonies (75%) (X2 = 1.65, p = 0.198). The percent that emerged also did not differ (X2 = 0.55, p = 0.457). Significantly fewer larvae from colonies fed pollen-2 and reared in those colonies survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.54, p < 0.0001) and emerged as queens compared with those reared in outside colonies (X2 = 4.21, p = 0.04). More larvae survived to the capped brood stage and emerged as queens when grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 compared with pollen-2 (capped brood: X2 = 13.6, p < 0.0001; emerged queens: X2 = 10.0, p = 0.002).
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insects-04-00071-f003: The percentage of queen cells that were capped and had emerged queens when larvae were grafted from colonies in an enclosed flight area (EFA) that were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (Pollen-1), or with chlorpyrifos and Pristine® fungicide (Pollen-2). The larvae were reared into queens in the colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or in open foraging colonies outside the EFA (Outside). Percentages of larvae grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage did not differ between those reared in colonies fed pollen-1 (57.9%) or in outside colonies (75%) (X2 = 1.65, p = 0.198). The percent that emerged also did not differ (X2 = 0.55, p = 0.457). Significantly fewer larvae from colonies fed pollen-2 and reared in those colonies survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.54, p < 0.0001) and emerged as queens compared with those reared in outside colonies (X2 = 4.21, p = 0.04). More larvae survived to the capped brood stage and emerged as queens when grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 compared with pollen-2 (capped brood: X2 = 13.6, p < 0.0001; emerged queens: X2 = 10.0, p = 0.002).

Mentions: In Experiment-2, the percentage of larvae grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage did not differ between those reared in colonies fed pollen-1 (57.9%) or in outside colonies (75%) (X2 = 1.65, p = 0.198) (Figure 3). The percent that emerged also did not differ (X2 = 0.55, p = 0.457). Significantly fewer larvae from colonies fed pollen-2 and reared in those colonies survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.54, p < 0.0001) and emerged as queens compared with those reared in outside colonies (X2 = 4.21, p = 0.04). The percentage of larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.6, p < 0.0001) or emerged as queens (X2 = 10.0, p = 0.002) was significantly higher than when larvae were grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2.


The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R - Insects (2013)

The percentage of queen cells that were capped and had emerged queens when larvae were grafted from colonies in an enclosed flight area (EFA) that were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (Pollen-1), or with chlorpyrifos and Pristine® fungicide (Pollen-2). The larvae were reared into queens in the colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or in open foraging colonies outside the EFA (Outside). Percentages of larvae grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage did not differ between those reared in colonies fed pollen-1 (57.9%) or in outside colonies (75%) (X2 = 1.65, p = 0.198). The percent that emerged also did not differ (X2 = 0.55, p = 0.457). Significantly fewer larvae from colonies fed pollen-2 and reared in those colonies survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.54, p < 0.0001) and emerged as queens compared with those reared in outside colonies (X2 = 4.21, p = 0.04). More larvae survived to the capped brood stage and emerged as queens when grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 compared with pollen-2 (capped brood: X2 = 13.6, p < 0.0001; emerged queens: X2 = 10.0, p = 0.002).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553430&req=5

insects-04-00071-f003: The percentage of queen cells that were capped and had emerged queens when larvae were grafted from colonies in an enclosed flight area (EFA) that were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos alone (Pollen-1), or with chlorpyrifos and Pristine® fungicide (Pollen-2). The larvae were reared into queens in the colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 or in open foraging colonies outside the EFA (Outside). Percentages of larvae grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage did not differ between those reared in colonies fed pollen-1 (57.9%) or in outside colonies (75%) (X2 = 1.65, p = 0.198). The percent that emerged also did not differ (X2 = 0.55, p = 0.457). Significantly fewer larvae from colonies fed pollen-2 and reared in those colonies survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.54, p < 0.0001) and emerged as queens compared with those reared in outside colonies (X2 = 4.21, p = 0.04). More larvae survived to the capped brood stage and emerged as queens when grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 compared with pollen-2 (capped brood: X2 = 13.6, p < 0.0001; emerged queens: X2 = 10.0, p = 0.002).
Mentions: In Experiment-2, the percentage of larvae grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage did not differ between those reared in colonies fed pollen-1 (57.9%) or in outside colonies (75%) (X2 = 1.65, p = 0.198) (Figure 3). The percent that emerged also did not differ (X2 = 0.55, p = 0.457). Significantly fewer larvae from colonies fed pollen-2 and reared in those colonies survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.54, p < 0.0001) and emerged as queens compared with those reared in outside colonies (X2 = 4.21, p = 0.04). The percentage of larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-1 that survived to the capped stage (X2 = 13.6, p < 0.0001) or emerged as queens (X2 = 10.0, p = 0.002) was significantly higher than when larvae were grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2.

Bottom Line: Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies.In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2.The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Gloria.Hoffman@ARS.USDA.GOV.

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine(®) (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine(®) is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus