Limits...
Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

Garcia FR, Ricalde MP - Insects (2012)

Bottom Line: Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult.Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing.In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Insect Ecology Lab, Department of Ecology, Zoology and Genetics, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Pelotas, P.O. Box 354, Pelotas, RS CEP 96010-900, Brazil. flavio.garcia@pq.cnpq.br.

ABSTRACT
The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

No MeSH data available.


C. capitata in a rearing cage, water; artificial fruit; adult food; papaya.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553429&req=5

insects-04-00055-f001: C. capitata in a rearing cage, water; artificial fruit; adult food; papaya.

Mentions: In Brazil, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is mass-reared in cages containing water, food (sugar and soy protein) and a means for oviposition (papaya fruit and artificial plastic fruit, although the flies will also oviposit through the cage screen) (Figure 1) [61]. The eggs are collected with a paintbrush, and the larvae are subsequently reared on an artificial diet. When the larvae reach third instar, they are exposed to adult parasitoids in a nursery container, simulating an infested fruit to facilitate access to the larvae. Adult parasitoids are fed an artificial diet (120 mL warm water, 0.8 g agar, 0.05 g ascorbic acid, 0.005 g Nipagin and 120 mL honey) and water. After 24 hours, the larvae are placed in containers containing vermiculite for pupation and adult emergence [61]. The parasitoid offspring are removed from the emergent cages with the aid of a vacuum adapted to provide weak suction [61].


Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

Garcia FR, Ricalde MP - Insects (2012)

C. capitata in a rearing cage, water; artificial fruit; adult food; papaya.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553429&req=5

insects-04-00055-f001: C. capitata in a rearing cage, water; artificial fruit; adult food; papaya.
Mentions: In Brazil, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is mass-reared in cages containing water, food (sugar and soy protein) and a means for oviposition (papaya fruit and artificial plastic fruit, although the flies will also oviposit through the cage screen) (Figure 1) [61]. The eggs are collected with a paintbrush, and the larvae are subsequently reared on an artificial diet. When the larvae reach third instar, they are exposed to adult parasitoids in a nursery container, simulating an infested fruit to facilitate access to the larvae. Adult parasitoids are fed an artificial diet (120 mL warm water, 0.8 g agar, 0.05 g ascorbic acid, 0.005 g Nipagin and 120 mL honey) and water. After 24 hours, the larvae are placed in containers containing vermiculite for pupation and adult emergence [61]. The parasitoid offspring are removed from the emergent cages with the aid of a vacuum adapted to provide weak suction [61].

Bottom Line: Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult.Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing.In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Insect Ecology Lab, Department of Ecology, Zoology and Genetics, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Pelotas, P.O. Box 354, Pelotas, RS CEP 96010-900, Brazil. flavio.garcia@pq.cnpq.br.

ABSTRACT
The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

No MeSH data available.