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Effects of Flight on Gene Expression and Aging in the Honey Bee Brain and Flight Muscle.

Margotta JW, Mancinelli GE, Benito AA, Ammons A, Roberts SP, Elekonich MM - Insects (2012)

Bottom Line: To investigate the effects of flight, behavioral state and age on gene expression, we used whole-genome microarrays and real-time PCR.Our data suggest that the transition from behaviors requiring little to no flight (nursing) to those requiring prolonged flight bouts (foraging), rather than the amount of previous flight per se, has a major effect on gene expression.Combined with our real-time PCR data, these data suggest an epigenetic control and energy balance role in honey bee functional senescence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. margotta@unlv.nevada.edu.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees move through a series of in-hive tasks (e.g., "nursing") to outside tasks (e.g., "foraging") that are coincident with physiological changes and higher levels of metabolic activity. Social context can cause worker bees to speed up or slow down this process, and foragers may revert back to their earlier in-hive tasks accompanied by reversion to earlier physiological states. To investigate the effects of flight, behavioral state and age on gene expression, we used whole-genome microarrays and real-time PCR. Brain tissue and flight muscle exhibited different patterns of expression during behavioral transitions, with expression patterns in the brain reflecting both age and behavior, and expression patterns in flight muscle being primarily determined by age. Our data suggest that the transition from behaviors requiring little to no flight (nursing) to those requiring prolonged flight bouts (foraging), rather than the amount of previous flight per se, has a major effect on gene expression. Following behavioral reversion there was a partial reversion in gene expression but some aspects of forager expression patterns, such as those for genes involved in immune function, remained. Combined with our real-time PCR data, these data suggest an epigenetic control and energy balance role in honey bee functional senescence.

No MeSH data available.


Global expression analysis. Hierarchical clustering was performed to visualize global patterns of gene expression. Replicates were averaged before analysis. Each graph represents over 12,000 transcripts and each row of the graphs represents one transcript. (A) Unique patterns of transcription were seen between groups that represented various ages and behavioral groups with varying amounts of flight experiences. Unique expression patterns were also seen between tissues. (B) Hierarchical clustering reveals groups more closely related in age are most related. YN = young nurse (8–10 days-old; <1 day flight); RN = reverted nurse (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight); OF = old forager (25–26 days-old; 10–12 days flight); TH = typical-aged forager-high flight (19–22 days old; 7–9 days flight); ON = older nurse (19–22 days old; <1 day flight); TL = typical-aged forager-low flight (19–22 days old; 2–3 days flight); PF = precocious forager (8–10 days old; 2–3 days flight). Y = young bees (8–10 days-old); O = old bees (25–26 days-old foragers; 19–22 day-old nurses); R = reverted nurse bees (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight).
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insects-04-00009-f002: Global expression analysis. Hierarchical clustering was performed to visualize global patterns of gene expression. Replicates were averaged before analysis. Each graph represents over 12,000 transcripts and each row of the graphs represents one transcript. (A) Unique patterns of transcription were seen between groups that represented various ages and behavioral groups with varying amounts of flight experiences. Unique expression patterns were also seen between tissues. (B) Hierarchical clustering reveals groups more closely related in age are most related. YN = young nurse (8–10 days-old; <1 day flight); RN = reverted nurse (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight); OF = old forager (25–26 days-old; 10–12 days flight); TH = typical-aged forager-high flight (19–22 days old; 7–9 days flight); ON = older nurse (19–22 days old; <1 day flight); TL = typical-aged forager-low flight (19–22 days old; 2–3 days flight); PF = precocious forager (8–10 days old; 2–3 days flight). Y = young bees (8–10 days-old); O = old bees (25–26 days-old foragers; 19–22 day-old nurses); R = reverted nurse bees (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight).

Mentions: In this study, we compared age-matched nurse bees and forager bees with differing amounts of prior flight activity to examine gene expression associated with flight in brain tissue and flight muscle. Using whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays, either 6 or 12 biological replicates (Figure 1) were used for each group involved in this analysis. By using a manipulation that causes forager bees to revert back to nurse bees, we were able to determine the reversibility of the transcriptional profile of these bees (Figure 2A). Groups more closely related in age had the most similar transcriptional patterns (Figure 2B). Similar to the findings of a previous study looking at brain transcriptional patterns [45], we found that honey bee flight induces unique patterns of expression across the genome in brain tissue, but in the flight muscle we saw age-related patterns of expression similar to expression patterns in Drosophila thoraces [46].


Effects of Flight on Gene Expression and Aging in the Honey Bee Brain and Flight Muscle.

Margotta JW, Mancinelli GE, Benito AA, Ammons A, Roberts SP, Elekonich MM - Insects (2012)

Global expression analysis. Hierarchical clustering was performed to visualize global patterns of gene expression. Replicates were averaged before analysis. Each graph represents over 12,000 transcripts and each row of the graphs represents one transcript. (A) Unique patterns of transcription were seen between groups that represented various ages and behavioral groups with varying amounts of flight experiences. Unique expression patterns were also seen between tissues. (B) Hierarchical clustering reveals groups more closely related in age are most related. YN = young nurse (8–10 days-old; <1 day flight); RN = reverted nurse (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight); OF = old forager (25–26 days-old; 10–12 days flight); TH = typical-aged forager-high flight (19–22 days old; 7–9 days flight); ON = older nurse (19–22 days old; <1 day flight); TL = typical-aged forager-low flight (19–22 days old; 2–3 days flight); PF = precocious forager (8–10 days old; 2–3 days flight). Y = young bees (8–10 days-old); O = old bees (25–26 days-old foragers; 19–22 day-old nurses); R = reverted nurse bees (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553427&req=5

insects-04-00009-f002: Global expression analysis. Hierarchical clustering was performed to visualize global patterns of gene expression. Replicates were averaged before analysis. Each graph represents over 12,000 transcripts and each row of the graphs represents one transcript. (A) Unique patterns of transcription were seen between groups that represented various ages and behavioral groups with varying amounts of flight experiences. Unique expression patterns were also seen between tissues. (B) Hierarchical clustering reveals groups more closely related in age are most related. YN = young nurse (8–10 days-old; <1 day flight); RN = reverted nurse (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight); OF = old forager (25–26 days-old; 10–12 days flight); TH = typical-aged forager-high flight (19–22 days old; 7–9 days flight); ON = older nurse (19–22 days old; <1 day flight); TL = typical-aged forager-low flight (19–22 days old; 2–3 days flight); PF = precocious forager (8–10 days old; 2–3 days flight). Y = young bees (8–10 days-old); O = old bees (25–26 days-old foragers; 19–22 day-old nurses); R = reverted nurse bees (25–26 days-old; 7–9 days flight).
Mentions: In this study, we compared age-matched nurse bees and forager bees with differing amounts of prior flight activity to examine gene expression associated with flight in brain tissue and flight muscle. Using whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays, either 6 or 12 biological replicates (Figure 1) were used for each group involved in this analysis. By using a manipulation that causes forager bees to revert back to nurse bees, we were able to determine the reversibility of the transcriptional profile of these bees (Figure 2A). Groups more closely related in age had the most similar transcriptional patterns (Figure 2B). Similar to the findings of a previous study looking at brain transcriptional patterns [45], we found that honey bee flight induces unique patterns of expression across the genome in brain tissue, but in the flight muscle we saw age-related patterns of expression similar to expression patterns in Drosophila thoraces [46].

Bottom Line: To investigate the effects of flight, behavioral state and age on gene expression, we used whole-genome microarrays and real-time PCR.Our data suggest that the transition from behaviors requiring little to no flight (nursing) to those requiring prolonged flight bouts (foraging), rather than the amount of previous flight per se, has a major effect on gene expression.Combined with our real-time PCR data, these data suggest an epigenetic control and energy balance role in honey bee functional senescence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. margotta@unlv.nevada.edu.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees move through a series of in-hive tasks (e.g., "nursing") to outside tasks (e.g., "foraging") that are coincident with physiological changes and higher levels of metabolic activity. Social context can cause worker bees to speed up or slow down this process, and foragers may revert back to their earlier in-hive tasks accompanied by reversion to earlier physiological states. To investigate the effects of flight, behavioral state and age on gene expression, we used whole-genome microarrays and real-time PCR. Brain tissue and flight muscle exhibited different patterns of expression during behavioral transitions, with expression patterns in the brain reflecting both age and behavior, and expression patterns in flight muscle being primarily determined by age. Our data suggest that the transition from behaviors requiring little to no flight (nursing) to those requiring prolonged flight bouts (foraging), rather than the amount of previous flight per se, has a major effect on gene expression. Following behavioral reversion there was a partial reversion in gene expression but some aspects of forager expression patterns, such as those for genes involved in immune function, remained. Combined with our real-time PCR data, these data suggest an epigenetic control and energy balance role in honey bee functional senescence.

No MeSH data available.