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A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves.

Hofmann F, Otto M, Kuhn U, Ober S, Schlechtriemen U, Vögel R - Insects (2011)

Bottom Line: These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves.The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field.Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TIEM Integrated Environmental Monitoring GbR, Nörten-Hardenberg/Bremen, Germany. f.hofmann@oekologiebuero.de.

ABSTRACT
Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Images taken in situ with Dino-Lite microscope. (a, b) Examples of pollen accumulation on Urtica dioica on upper leaf side (50×). (c) Leaf underside of Urtica dioica (50×); (d) Sideways view on leaf of Succisa scabiosa (200×).
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f4-insects-02-00012: Images taken in situ with Dino-Lite microscope. (a, b) Examples of pollen accumulation on Urtica dioica on upper leaf side (50×). (c) Leaf underside of Urtica dioica (50×); (d) Sideways view on leaf of Succisa scabiosa (200×).

Mentions: Using the portable digital microscope it is possible to obtain direct, in situ measurements of maize pollen deposition on plant leaves. Examples of images are given in Figures 2–4. Maize pollen could be accurately identified by visual analysis under 200× magnification according to its relatively large size (usually 80–120 μm) and characteristic shape and color (Figure 2). We found that the method can be applied well in situ for identifying maize pollen. Although the method may be applied to other pollen species, it will need to be checked and adapted, especially for smaller pollen. The method involves minimal handling of plant leaves and is not destructive. As a result, the maize pollen deposition on the leaves can be observed repeatedly, which offers the opportunity to obtain data on the temporal and spatial variation of pollen deposition on the leaves during anthesis in a representative way. By the method it is further possible to obtain information on pollen densities from both the leaf upper side and leaf underside (Figure 4). In addition, sideway images of leaves can be taken to visualize, for example, the role of leaf structures such as trichomes (e.g., S. scabiosa, Figure 4d). For in situ measurements in the field, two people are recommended, one working with the microscope on the leaf and one with the notebook. As the microscope is powered by the laptop, the operating time of the notebook without an external power supply is limited.


A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves.

Hofmann F, Otto M, Kuhn U, Ober S, Schlechtriemen U, Vögel R - Insects (2011)

Images taken in situ with Dino-Lite microscope. (a, b) Examples of pollen accumulation on Urtica dioica on upper leaf side (50×). (c) Leaf underside of Urtica dioica (50×); (d) Sideways view on leaf of Succisa scabiosa (200×).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553420&req=5

f4-insects-02-00012: Images taken in situ with Dino-Lite microscope. (a, b) Examples of pollen accumulation on Urtica dioica on upper leaf side (50×). (c) Leaf underside of Urtica dioica (50×); (d) Sideways view on leaf of Succisa scabiosa (200×).
Mentions: Using the portable digital microscope it is possible to obtain direct, in situ measurements of maize pollen deposition on plant leaves. Examples of images are given in Figures 2–4. Maize pollen could be accurately identified by visual analysis under 200× magnification according to its relatively large size (usually 80–120 μm) and characteristic shape and color (Figure 2). We found that the method can be applied well in situ for identifying maize pollen. Although the method may be applied to other pollen species, it will need to be checked and adapted, especially for smaller pollen. The method involves minimal handling of plant leaves and is not destructive. As a result, the maize pollen deposition on the leaves can be observed repeatedly, which offers the opportunity to obtain data on the temporal and spatial variation of pollen deposition on the leaves during anthesis in a representative way. By the method it is further possible to obtain information on pollen densities from both the leaf upper side and leaf underside (Figure 4). In addition, sideway images of leaves can be taken to visualize, for example, the role of leaf structures such as trichomes (e.g., S. scabiosa, Figure 4d). For in situ measurements in the field, two people are recommended, one working with the microscope on the leaf and one with the notebook. As the microscope is powered by the laptop, the operating time of the notebook without an external power supply is limited.

Bottom Line: These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves.The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field.Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TIEM Integrated Environmental Monitoring GbR, Nörten-Hardenberg/Bremen, Germany. f.hofmann@oekologiebuero.de.

ABSTRACT
Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus