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The influence of observers' sex on attention-demanding performance depends on performers' sex.

Wang L, Tan J, Chen J, Chen A - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: They alternated their roles in two successive blocks.The results revealed that (1) larger PES effect was observed in females than in males in the interaction context; (2) the sex difference of PES effect mainly benefited from the opposite-sex interaction; (3) larger PES effect was observed in the interaction context than in the individual context; (4) females' performance was influenced after an interaction with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, whereas males' performance was merely influenced after an interaction with an opposite-sex partner.Taken together, these findings may suggest that (1) interaction context modulates the PES effect differently for females and males; (2) females are more susceptible to social information and hence more effective to adjust the post-error behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Southwest University , Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Post-error slowing (PES) indicates the slower responses after errors than after correct responses. Prior studies mainly focus on how the observation errors influence one own's performance, there is no study investigating how other's monitoring influence one own's performance. Additionally, the issue that whether social context influences the PES effect differently for females and males is still unclear. To address aforementioned issues, we required the participants to interact with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner to complete a color flanker task together (they sat next to each other, Experiment 1). One was the performer (perform the flanker task), and the other was the observer (monitor the error responses of performer). They alternated their roles in two successive blocks. To further verify the role of the interaction context, a control experiment was conducted in the individual context (Experiment 2). The results revealed that (1) larger PES effect was observed in females than in males in the interaction context; (2) the sex difference of PES effect mainly benefited from the opposite-sex interaction; (3) larger PES effect was observed in the interaction context than in the individual context; (4) females' performance was influenced after an interaction with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, whereas males' performance was merely influenced after an interaction with an opposite-sex partner. Taken together, these findings may suggest that (1) interaction context modulates the PES effect differently for females and males; (2) females are more susceptible to social information and hence more effective to adjust the post-error behaviors.

No MeSH data available.


The contrast results as a function of context (same-sex interaction/opposite-sex interaction and individual) and sex of performer (female and male). (A,B) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the same-sex interaction and individual contexts. (C,D) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the opposite-sex interaction and individual contexts. Red lines indicate the performance in the same-sex interaction context, green lines indicate the performance in the opposite-sex interaction context, and blue lines indicate the performance in the individual context. Error bars denote standard error, *p < 0.01.
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Figure 6: The contrast results as a function of context (same-sex interaction/opposite-sex interaction and individual) and sex of performer (female and male). (A,B) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the same-sex interaction and individual contexts. (C,D) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the opposite-sex interaction and individual contexts. Red lines indicate the performance in the same-sex interaction context, green lines indicate the performance in the opposite-sex interaction context, and blue lines indicate the performance in the individual context. Error bars denote standard error, *p < 0.01.

Mentions: For the RT analyses, the error trials, and trials that the RTs were shorter than 150 ms and longer than 1,000 ms were eliminated. In total, 16.5% of all trials were excluded from RT analysis. The results for PES effect and performance accuracy in the individual context as a function of experimental factors are shown in Figure 4. The results of contrast analysis between interaction and individual contexts are shown in Figures 5 and 6.


The influence of observers' sex on attention-demanding performance depends on performers' sex.

Wang L, Tan J, Chen J, Chen A - Front Psychol (2015)

The contrast results as a function of context (same-sex interaction/opposite-sex interaction and individual) and sex of performer (female and male). (A,B) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the same-sex interaction and individual contexts. (C,D) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the opposite-sex interaction and individual contexts. Red lines indicate the performance in the same-sex interaction context, green lines indicate the performance in the opposite-sex interaction context, and blue lines indicate the performance in the individual context. Error bars denote standard error, *p < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4553392&req=5

Figure 6: The contrast results as a function of context (same-sex interaction/opposite-sex interaction and individual) and sex of performer (female and male). (A,B) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the same-sex interaction and individual contexts. (C,D) show the contrast results of RT and accuracy between the opposite-sex interaction and individual contexts. Red lines indicate the performance in the same-sex interaction context, green lines indicate the performance in the opposite-sex interaction context, and blue lines indicate the performance in the individual context. Error bars denote standard error, *p < 0.01.
Mentions: For the RT analyses, the error trials, and trials that the RTs were shorter than 150 ms and longer than 1,000 ms were eliminated. In total, 16.5% of all trials were excluded from RT analysis. The results for PES effect and performance accuracy in the individual context as a function of experimental factors are shown in Figure 4. The results of contrast analysis between interaction and individual contexts are shown in Figures 5 and 6.

Bottom Line: They alternated their roles in two successive blocks.The results revealed that (1) larger PES effect was observed in females than in males in the interaction context; (2) the sex difference of PES effect mainly benefited from the opposite-sex interaction; (3) larger PES effect was observed in the interaction context than in the individual context; (4) females' performance was influenced after an interaction with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, whereas males' performance was merely influenced after an interaction with an opposite-sex partner.Taken together, these findings may suggest that (1) interaction context modulates the PES effect differently for females and males; (2) females are more susceptible to social information and hence more effective to adjust the post-error behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Southwest University , Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Post-error slowing (PES) indicates the slower responses after errors than after correct responses. Prior studies mainly focus on how the observation errors influence one own's performance, there is no study investigating how other's monitoring influence one own's performance. Additionally, the issue that whether social context influences the PES effect differently for females and males is still unclear. To address aforementioned issues, we required the participants to interact with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner to complete a color flanker task together (they sat next to each other, Experiment 1). One was the performer (perform the flanker task), and the other was the observer (monitor the error responses of performer). They alternated their roles in two successive blocks. To further verify the role of the interaction context, a control experiment was conducted in the individual context (Experiment 2). The results revealed that (1) larger PES effect was observed in females than in males in the interaction context; (2) the sex difference of PES effect mainly benefited from the opposite-sex interaction; (3) larger PES effect was observed in the interaction context than in the individual context; (4) females' performance was influenced after an interaction with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, whereas males' performance was merely influenced after an interaction with an opposite-sex partner. Taken together, these findings may suggest that (1) interaction context modulates the PES effect differently for females and males; (2) females are more susceptible to social information and hence more effective to adjust the post-error behaviors.

No MeSH data available.