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Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

Mercurio P, Mueller JF, Eaglesham G, Flores F, Negri AP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence.The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round.Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes transporting a high proportion of the original herbicide from rivers into the GBR lagoon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Queensland, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes transporting a high proportion of the original herbicide from rivers into the GBR lagoon.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Concentration of metabolites of diuron and atrazine.Concentrations of individual herbicides including measured metabolites (a) diuron light 25°C, (b) atrazine dark 25°C, (c) atrazine light 25°C, and (d) atrazine dark 31°C, over 365 days. Bars represent ± SE. Note the concentration scales for the parent and metabolite are on opposite sides of each graph.
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pone.0136391.g005: Concentration of metabolites of diuron and atrazine.Concentrations of individual herbicides including measured metabolites (a) diuron light 25°C, (b) atrazine dark 25°C, (c) atrazine light 25°C, and (d) atrazine dark 31°C, over 365 days. Bars represent ± SE. Note the concentration scales for the parent and metabolite are on opposite sides of each graph.

Mentions: D25 = 25°C, dark; D31 = 31°C, dark; L25 = 25°C. MC = mercuric chloride. SE = Standard Error. Significant degradation after 60 and 360 d when p < 0.05 (repeated measures ANOVA, S6 Table), NS = not significant.–indicates herbicide not tested. The superscripts a,b represent significantly different slopes in Figs 3–5 graphs (S7 Table), indicating differences in persistence between treatments for that herbicide.


Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

Mercurio P, Mueller JF, Eaglesham G, Flores F, Negri AP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Concentration of metabolites of diuron and atrazine.Concentrations of individual herbicides including measured metabolites (a) diuron light 25°C, (b) atrazine dark 25°C, (c) atrazine light 25°C, and (d) atrazine dark 31°C, over 365 days. Bars represent ± SE. Note the concentration scales for the parent and metabolite are on opposite sides of each graph.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552293&req=5

pone.0136391.g005: Concentration of metabolites of diuron and atrazine.Concentrations of individual herbicides including measured metabolites (a) diuron light 25°C, (b) atrazine dark 25°C, (c) atrazine light 25°C, and (d) atrazine dark 31°C, over 365 days. Bars represent ± SE. Note the concentration scales for the parent and metabolite are on opposite sides of each graph.
Mentions: D25 = 25°C, dark; D31 = 31°C, dark; L25 = 25°C. MC = mercuric chloride. SE = Standard Error. Significant degradation after 60 and 360 d when p < 0.05 (repeated measures ANOVA, S6 Table), NS = not significant.–indicates herbicide not tested. The superscripts a,b represent significantly different slopes in Figs 3–5 graphs (S7 Table), indicating differences in persistence between treatments for that herbicide.

Bottom Line: Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence.The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round.Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes transporting a high proportion of the original herbicide from rivers into the GBR lagoon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Queensland, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes transporting a high proportion of the original herbicide from rivers into the GBR lagoon.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus