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Genomic expression program of Saccharomyces cerevisiae along a mixed-culture wine fermentation with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii.

Barbosa C, Mendes-Faia A, Lage P, Mira NP, Mendes-Ferreira A - Microb. Cell Fact. (2015)

Bottom Line: Co-inoculation with H. guilliermondii reduced the overall genome-wide transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae throughout the fermentation, which was attributable to a lower fermentative activity of S. cerevisiae while in the mixed-fermentation.Approximately 350 genes S. cerevisiae genes were found to be differently expressed (FDR < 0.05) in response to the presence of H. guilliermondii in the fermentation medium.The availability of nutrients, in particular, of nitrogen and vitamins, stands out as a factor that may determine population dynamics, fermentative activity and by-product formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escola de Ciências da Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. crbarbosa@utad.pt.

ABSTRACT

Background: The introduction of yeast starter cultures consisting in a blend of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains is emerging for production of wines with improved complexity of flavor. The rational use of this approach is, however, dependent on knowing the impact that co-inoculation has in the physiology of S. cerevisiae. In this work the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae was monitored throughout a wine fermentation, carried out in single culture or in a consortium with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, this being the first time that this relevant yeast-yeast interaction is examined at a genomic scale.

Results: Co-inoculation with H. guilliermondii reduced the overall genome-wide transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae throughout the fermentation, which was attributable to a lower fermentative activity of S. cerevisiae while in the mixed-fermentation. Approximately 350 genes S. cerevisiae genes were found to be differently expressed (FDR < 0.05) in response to the presence of H. guilliermondii in the fermentation medium. Genes involved in biosynthesis of vitamins were enriched among those up-regulated in the mixed-culture fermentation, while genes related with the uptake and biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched among those more expressed in the single-culture. The differences in the aromatic profiles of wines obtained in the single and in the mixed-fermentations correlated with the differential expression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding enzymes required for formation of aroma compounds.

Conclusions: By integrating results obtained in the transcriptomic analysis performed with physiological data our study provided, for the first time, an integrated view into the adaptive responses of S. cerevisiae to the challenging environment of mixed culture fermentation. The availability of nutrients, in particular, of nitrogen and vitamins, stands out as a factor that may determine population dynamics, fermentative activity and by-product formation.

No MeSH data available.


Biochemical pathways involved in flavor-active compounds formation. a Yeast genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze each step in the different pathways are shown in italic. b Expression of genes involved in aroma compounds formation: (1) comparison of Sc vs Mc gene expression at each fermentation stage, T1 (24 h), T2 (48 h) and T3 (96 h) red higher expressed in Sc and green higher expressed in Mc—Comparative analysis; and dynamics of genes expression along each fermentation. In this case ratios were obtained using the corresponding T1 as reference—Time-course analysis (red up-regulated and green down-regulated)
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Fig5: Biochemical pathways involved in flavor-active compounds formation. a Yeast genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze each step in the different pathways are shown in italic. b Expression of genes involved in aroma compounds formation: (1) comparison of Sc vs Mc gene expression at each fermentation stage, T1 (24 h), T2 (48 h) and T3 (96 h) red higher expressed in Sc and green higher expressed in Mc—Comparative analysis; and dynamics of genes expression along each fermentation. In this case ratios were obtained using the corresponding T1 as reference—Time-course analysis (red up-regulated and green down-regulated)

Mentions: The production of volatile compounds in the final wines was found to be significantly affected when S. cerevisiae was cultivated in the presence of H. guilliermondii [6]. While higher alcohols, acetate esters and acetaldehyde were highly detected in the wines fermented by mixed-culture of these two yeasts, the levels of ethyl esters, ethanol and H2S were more abundant in the wines that were only fermented by S. cerevisiae (Additional file 5). Transcriptome analysis of genes related to aroma production in S. cerevisiae have proven, at some extent, to be correlated with aroma compounds production during wine [22, 48, 49] and beer fermentation [50]. Given this, we have compared the expression of S. cerevisiae genes involved in the formation of different aroma compounds during single-fermentation or in the mixed fermentation with H. guilliermondii and the results obtained are summarized in Figs. 5 and 6. The variation of the expression of these genes along the two fermentations is also shown. The results show that, aside quantitative variation for each gene found within the different fermentations, most of them displayed the same trend in each fermentation. In the following sections are detailed the differences found in the expression of genes involved in production of higher alcohols, acetate and ethyl esters and H2S.Fig. 5


Genomic expression program of Saccharomyces cerevisiae along a mixed-culture wine fermentation with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii.

Barbosa C, Mendes-Faia A, Lage P, Mira NP, Mendes-Ferreira A - Microb. Cell Fact. (2015)

Biochemical pathways involved in flavor-active compounds formation. a Yeast genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze each step in the different pathways are shown in italic. b Expression of genes involved in aroma compounds formation: (1) comparison of Sc vs Mc gene expression at each fermentation stage, T1 (24 h), T2 (48 h) and T3 (96 h) red higher expressed in Sc and green higher expressed in Mc—Comparative analysis; and dynamics of genes expression along each fermentation. In this case ratios were obtained using the corresponding T1 as reference—Time-course analysis (red up-regulated and green down-regulated)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552253&req=5

Fig5: Biochemical pathways involved in flavor-active compounds formation. a Yeast genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze each step in the different pathways are shown in italic. b Expression of genes involved in aroma compounds formation: (1) comparison of Sc vs Mc gene expression at each fermentation stage, T1 (24 h), T2 (48 h) and T3 (96 h) red higher expressed in Sc and green higher expressed in Mc—Comparative analysis; and dynamics of genes expression along each fermentation. In this case ratios were obtained using the corresponding T1 as reference—Time-course analysis (red up-regulated and green down-regulated)
Mentions: The production of volatile compounds in the final wines was found to be significantly affected when S. cerevisiae was cultivated in the presence of H. guilliermondii [6]. While higher alcohols, acetate esters and acetaldehyde were highly detected in the wines fermented by mixed-culture of these two yeasts, the levels of ethyl esters, ethanol and H2S were more abundant in the wines that were only fermented by S. cerevisiae (Additional file 5). Transcriptome analysis of genes related to aroma production in S. cerevisiae have proven, at some extent, to be correlated with aroma compounds production during wine [22, 48, 49] and beer fermentation [50]. Given this, we have compared the expression of S. cerevisiae genes involved in the formation of different aroma compounds during single-fermentation or in the mixed fermentation with H. guilliermondii and the results obtained are summarized in Figs. 5 and 6. The variation of the expression of these genes along the two fermentations is also shown. The results show that, aside quantitative variation for each gene found within the different fermentations, most of them displayed the same trend in each fermentation. In the following sections are detailed the differences found in the expression of genes involved in production of higher alcohols, acetate and ethyl esters and H2S.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Co-inoculation with H. guilliermondii reduced the overall genome-wide transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae throughout the fermentation, which was attributable to a lower fermentative activity of S. cerevisiae while in the mixed-fermentation.Approximately 350 genes S. cerevisiae genes were found to be differently expressed (FDR < 0.05) in response to the presence of H. guilliermondii in the fermentation medium.The availability of nutrients, in particular, of nitrogen and vitamins, stands out as a factor that may determine population dynamics, fermentative activity and by-product formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escola de Ciências da Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. crbarbosa@utad.pt.

ABSTRACT

Background: The introduction of yeast starter cultures consisting in a blend of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains is emerging for production of wines with improved complexity of flavor. The rational use of this approach is, however, dependent on knowing the impact that co-inoculation has in the physiology of S. cerevisiae. In this work the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae was monitored throughout a wine fermentation, carried out in single culture or in a consortium with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, this being the first time that this relevant yeast-yeast interaction is examined at a genomic scale.

Results: Co-inoculation with H. guilliermondii reduced the overall genome-wide transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae throughout the fermentation, which was attributable to a lower fermentative activity of S. cerevisiae while in the mixed-fermentation. Approximately 350 genes S. cerevisiae genes were found to be differently expressed (FDR < 0.05) in response to the presence of H. guilliermondii in the fermentation medium. Genes involved in biosynthesis of vitamins were enriched among those up-regulated in the mixed-culture fermentation, while genes related with the uptake and biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched among those more expressed in the single-culture. The differences in the aromatic profiles of wines obtained in the single and in the mixed-fermentations correlated with the differential expression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding enzymes required for formation of aroma compounds.

Conclusions: By integrating results obtained in the transcriptomic analysis performed with physiological data our study provided, for the first time, an integrated view into the adaptive responses of S. cerevisiae to the challenging environment of mixed culture fermentation. The availability of nutrients, in particular, of nitrogen and vitamins, stands out as a factor that may determine population dynamics, fermentative activity and by-product formation.

No MeSH data available.