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Microbiome interplay: plants alter microbial abundance and diversity within the built environment.

Mahnert A, Moissl-Eichinger C, Berg G - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased.LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces.This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology Graz, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The built indoor microbiome has importance for human health. Residents leave their microbial fingerprint but nothing is known about the transfer from plants. Our hypothesis that indoor plants contribute substantially to the microbial abundance and diversity in the built environment was experimentally confirmed as proof of principle by analyzing the microbiome of the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum in relation to their surroundings. The abundance of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (fungi) increased on surrounding floor and wall surfaces within 6 months of plant isolation in a cleaned indoor environment, whereas the microbial abundance on plant leaves and indoor air remained stable. We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased. The majority of cells were intact at the time of samplings and thus most probably alive including diverse Archaea as yet unknown phyllosphere inhabitants. LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces. This led to an increase of specific taxa including spore-forming fungi with potential allergic potential but also beneficial plant-associated bacteria, e.g., Paenibacillus. This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

No MeSH data available.


Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) of bacterial and fungal OTUs, which most likely explain differences between sampled indoor classes (indoor air, plant leaves, floor and wall surfaces prior and after plant incubation). Results were colored and grouped according to indoor classes as in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.
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Figure 3: Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) of bacterial and fungal OTUs, which most likely explain differences between sampled indoor classes (indoor air, plant leaves, floor and wall surfaces prior and after plant incubation). Results were colored and grouped according to indoor classes as in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.

Mentions: The linear discriminant analysis of the effect size [LEfSe; (Segata et al., 2011)] of bacterial and fungal core OTUs revealed features that most likely explained differences between sampled indoor classes. According to this analysis 47 OTUs could be identified to be responsible for discriminating between the different sampled spaces and microbiomes (Figure 3). Hence, amongst other OTUs from lower taxonomic levels, Acidovorax, Methylobacterium (for air_t1 samples); Caulobacter (for control samples); Cellvibrio, Clostridium intestinale, Devosia, Dyadobacter, Luteimonas, Rhizobium, Sphingopyxis (for plant_t1 samples); Bradyrhizobium (for surface_t0 samples); and Heterobasidion (for surface_t1 samples) were significantly responsible to explain differences of their respective indoor space. For a deeper insight some of these OTUs are shown as abundance histograms in relation to the sampled indoor environment (Figure 4). This analysis showed that mainly OTUs from plant samples and surrounding floor and wall samples were significantly responsible for discriminating the different categories of indoor environments and revealed that the plant serves as a source of microbes within the built environment.


Microbiome interplay: plants alter microbial abundance and diversity within the built environment.

Mahnert A, Moissl-Eichinger C, Berg G - Front Microbiol (2015)

Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) of bacterial and fungal OTUs, which most likely explain differences between sampled indoor classes (indoor air, plant leaves, floor and wall surfaces prior and after plant incubation). Results were colored and grouped according to indoor classes as in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552223&req=5

Figure 3: Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) of bacterial and fungal OTUs, which most likely explain differences between sampled indoor classes (indoor air, plant leaves, floor and wall surfaces prior and after plant incubation). Results were colored and grouped according to indoor classes as in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.
Mentions: The linear discriminant analysis of the effect size [LEfSe; (Segata et al., 2011)] of bacterial and fungal core OTUs revealed features that most likely explained differences between sampled indoor classes. According to this analysis 47 OTUs could be identified to be responsible for discriminating between the different sampled spaces and microbiomes (Figure 3). Hence, amongst other OTUs from lower taxonomic levels, Acidovorax, Methylobacterium (for air_t1 samples); Caulobacter (for control samples); Cellvibrio, Clostridium intestinale, Devosia, Dyadobacter, Luteimonas, Rhizobium, Sphingopyxis (for plant_t1 samples); Bradyrhizobium (for surface_t0 samples); and Heterobasidion (for surface_t1 samples) were significantly responsible to explain differences of their respective indoor space. For a deeper insight some of these OTUs are shown as abundance histograms in relation to the sampled indoor environment (Figure 4). This analysis showed that mainly OTUs from plant samples and surrounding floor and wall samples were significantly responsible for discriminating the different categories of indoor environments and revealed that the plant serves as a source of microbes within the built environment.

Bottom Line: We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased.LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces.This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology Graz, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The built indoor microbiome has importance for human health. Residents leave their microbial fingerprint but nothing is known about the transfer from plants. Our hypothesis that indoor plants contribute substantially to the microbial abundance and diversity in the built environment was experimentally confirmed as proof of principle by analyzing the microbiome of the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum in relation to their surroundings. The abundance of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (fungi) increased on surrounding floor and wall surfaces within 6 months of plant isolation in a cleaned indoor environment, whereas the microbial abundance on plant leaves and indoor air remained stable. We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased. The majority of cells were intact at the time of samplings and thus most probably alive including diverse Archaea as yet unknown phyllosphere inhabitants. LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces. This led to an increase of specific taxa including spore-forming fungi with potential allergic potential but also beneficial plant-associated bacteria, e.g., Paenibacillus. This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

No MeSH data available.