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Microbiome interplay: plants alter microbial abundance and diversity within the built environment.

Mahnert A, Moissl-Eichinger C, Berg G - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased.LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces.This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology Graz, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The built indoor microbiome has importance for human health. Residents leave their microbial fingerprint but nothing is known about the transfer from plants. Our hypothesis that indoor plants contribute substantially to the microbial abundance and diversity in the built environment was experimentally confirmed as proof of principle by analyzing the microbiome of the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum in relation to their surroundings. The abundance of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (fungi) increased on surrounding floor and wall surfaces within 6 months of plant isolation in a cleaned indoor environment, whereas the microbial abundance on plant leaves and indoor air remained stable. We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased. The majority of cells were intact at the time of samplings and thus most probably alive including diverse Archaea as yet unknown phyllosphere inhabitants. LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces. This led to an increase of specific taxa including spore-forming fungi with potential allergic potential but also beneficial plant-associated bacteria, e.g., Paenibacillus. This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

No MeSH data available.


PCoA plot with scaled coordinates by percent explained based on Bray-Curtis distances of rarefied OTU tables (4062 sequences for bacteria and 6839 sequences for fungi). (A) shows results of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. (B) shows results of the fungal ITS amplicons. Spheres are colored according to the indoor space and the time points as highlighted in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.
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Figure 2: PCoA plot with scaled coordinates by percent explained based on Bray-Curtis distances of rarefied OTU tables (4062 sequences for bacteria and 6839 sequences for fungi). (A) shows results of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. (B) shows results of the fungal ITS amplicons. Spheres are colored according to the indoor space and the time points as highlighted in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.

Mentions: At the beta-diversity level, three distinct clusters appeared in a principal coordinate analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances of bacteria (Figure 2A). The first cluster was composed of samples from the air and the surrounding chamber surfaces prior to the plant isolation and the control. This cluster showed reasonable distance along PC1 axis (with a high variation of 32.6% explained) to the second cluster formed by plant leave samples prior to the isolation and the third cluster comprising samples from plant leave samples and surrounding surfaces after the isolation period. The ordination for fungi (Figure 2B) showed no distinct clusters of different sample groups, but similar changes in diversity along the PC1 axis (with a high variation of 22% explained). One of the most important findings was that indoor surfaces showed higher similarity to plant leaves after the isolation period. For bacteria, the calculated mean Bray-Curtis distances changed significantly (t-test P = 1.7*10−10) from 0.9 (surface_t0 vs. plant_t0) to 0.67 (surface_t1 vs. plant_t1) with a mean distance of all samples at 0.63. Likewise for fungi the calculated mean Bray-Curtis distances changed significantly (t-test P = 2.6*10−10) from 0.75 (surface_t0 vs. plant_t0) to 0.37 (surface_t1 vs. plant_t1) with a mean distance of all samples at 0.59. However, a similar trend for samples from the indoor air although less significant (t-test P = 0.001, due to a high sample dispersal) could only be perceived for the fungal communities 0.86 (air_t0 vs. surface_t0) to 0.73 (air_t1 vs. surface_t1). An adonis test (55% variation explained for bacteria and 44% for fungi) and an analysis of similarities (ANOSIM, R-statistic = 0.68 for bacteria and 0.3 for fungi) showed significant (P = 0.001) grouping of samples by their categories at an alpha of 0.05 with a stronger grouping per individual for bacteria. A Monte-carlo permutation based analysis (MRPP) between samples obtained from air, plant leaves, and wall and floor surfaces before and after plant isolation, resulted in a delta of 0.001 and a chance corrected within-group agreement of 0.2038 for bacteria and 0.1628 for fungi. Hence, the MRPP revealed significant differences between the overall sampled communities.


Microbiome interplay: plants alter microbial abundance and diversity within the built environment.

Mahnert A, Moissl-Eichinger C, Berg G - Front Microbiol (2015)

PCoA plot with scaled coordinates by percent explained based on Bray-Curtis distances of rarefied OTU tables (4062 sequences for bacteria and 6839 sequences for fungi). (A) shows results of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. (B) shows results of the fungal ITS amplicons. Spheres are colored according to the indoor space and the time points as highlighted in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552223&req=5

Figure 2: PCoA plot with scaled coordinates by percent explained based on Bray-Curtis distances of rarefied OTU tables (4062 sequences for bacteria and 6839 sequences for fungi). (A) shows results of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. (B) shows results of the fungal ITS amplicons. Spheres are colored according to the indoor space and the time points as highlighted in Figure 1. The control in gray was a sample from the lab environment outside the chamber after the isolation period.
Mentions: At the beta-diversity level, three distinct clusters appeared in a principal coordinate analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances of bacteria (Figure 2A). The first cluster was composed of samples from the air and the surrounding chamber surfaces prior to the plant isolation and the control. This cluster showed reasonable distance along PC1 axis (with a high variation of 32.6% explained) to the second cluster formed by plant leave samples prior to the isolation and the third cluster comprising samples from plant leave samples and surrounding surfaces after the isolation period. The ordination for fungi (Figure 2B) showed no distinct clusters of different sample groups, but similar changes in diversity along the PC1 axis (with a high variation of 22% explained). One of the most important findings was that indoor surfaces showed higher similarity to plant leaves after the isolation period. For bacteria, the calculated mean Bray-Curtis distances changed significantly (t-test P = 1.7*10−10) from 0.9 (surface_t0 vs. plant_t0) to 0.67 (surface_t1 vs. plant_t1) with a mean distance of all samples at 0.63. Likewise for fungi the calculated mean Bray-Curtis distances changed significantly (t-test P = 2.6*10−10) from 0.75 (surface_t0 vs. plant_t0) to 0.37 (surface_t1 vs. plant_t1) with a mean distance of all samples at 0.59. However, a similar trend for samples from the indoor air although less significant (t-test P = 0.001, due to a high sample dispersal) could only be perceived for the fungal communities 0.86 (air_t0 vs. surface_t0) to 0.73 (air_t1 vs. surface_t1). An adonis test (55% variation explained for bacteria and 44% for fungi) and an analysis of similarities (ANOSIM, R-statistic = 0.68 for bacteria and 0.3 for fungi) showed significant (P = 0.001) grouping of samples by their categories at an alpha of 0.05 with a stronger grouping per individual for bacteria. A Monte-carlo permutation based analysis (MRPP) between samples obtained from air, plant leaves, and wall and floor surfaces before and after plant isolation, resulted in a delta of 0.001 and a chance corrected within-group agreement of 0.2038 for bacteria and 0.1628 for fungi. Hence, the MRPP revealed significant differences between the overall sampled communities.

Bottom Line: We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased.LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces.This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology Graz, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The built indoor microbiome has importance for human health. Residents leave their microbial fingerprint but nothing is known about the transfer from plants. Our hypothesis that indoor plants contribute substantially to the microbial abundance and diversity in the built environment was experimentally confirmed as proof of principle by analyzing the microbiome of the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum in relation to their surroundings. The abundance of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (fungi) increased on surrounding floor and wall surfaces within 6 months of plant isolation in a cleaned indoor environment, whereas the microbial abundance on plant leaves and indoor air remained stable. We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased. The majority of cells were intact at the time of samplings and thus most probably alive including diverse Archaea as yet unknown phyllosphere inhabitants. LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces. This led to an increase of specific taxa including spore-forming fungi with potential allergic potential but also beneficial plant-associated bacteria, e.g., Paenibacillus. This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

No MeSH data available.