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An International Comparison of Female and Male Students' Attitudes to the Use of Animals.

Phillips C, Izmirli S, Aldavood J, Alonso M, Choe B, Hanlon A, Handziska A, Illmann G, Keeling L, Kennedy M, Lee G, Lund V, Mejdell C, Pelagic V, Rehn T - Animals (Basel) (2010)

Bottom Line: Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males.Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar.The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that 'emancipated female empathy' operates across countries as well as at a local level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, University of Queensland, Australia. c.phillips@uq.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of 'female empowered empathy' internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar. Across countries female students were more likely to avoid meat and less likely to avoid eggs, milk and seafood than male students, and were more likely to have kept pets than males. Females rated cats as more sentient than males did. The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that 'emancipated female empathy' operates across countries as well as at a local level.

No MeSH data available.


Ratio of female to male (F/M) scores on the Animal Welfare Index2 to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). CZ = Czech Republic, GB = Great Britain, IR = Iran, IE = Ireland, KR = South Korea, MK = Macedonia, NO = Norway, ES = Spain, SE = Sweden.
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f1-animals-01-00007: Ratio of female to male (F/M) scores on the Animal Welfare Index2 to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). CZ = Czech Republic, GB = Great Britain, IR = Iran, IE = Ireland, KR = South Korea, MK = Macedonia, NO = Norway, ES = Spain, SE = Sweden.

Mentions: Individual country's scores for the GEM component are presented in Table 4. There were significant relationships between GEM and the ratio of female to male scores on the Animal Welfare, Animal Rights and Animal Experimentation indices, with the strongest relationship being with the Animal Rights Index (Table 5). Overall, Political Participation and Senior Workplace Roles were the important components in the GEM in explaining this relationship, not Economic Participation. For the Animal Rights index ratios this was primarily due to the Political Participation component of the GEM; for the Animal Welfare index ratios it was due to both Political Participation and Senior Workplace Roles. The relationship between female to male (F/M) Animal Welfare Index2 and the Gender Empowerment Index is shown in Figure 1, and it is evident that there is a high correlation, but that Ireland is an outlier. The same trend is evident for the relationship between F/M Animal Rights Index and the Gender Empowerment Index (Figure 2), with a good correlation except for Ireland.


An International Comparison of Female and Male Students' Attitudes to the Use of Animals.

Phillips C, Izmirli S, Aldavood J, Alonso M, Choe B, Hanlon A, Handziska A, Illmann G, Keeling L, Kennedy M, Lee G, Lund V, Mejdell C, Pelagic V, Rehn T - Animals (Basel) (2010)

Ratio of female to male (F/M) scores on the Animal Welfare Index2 to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). CZ = Czech Republic, GB = Great Britain, IR = Iran, IE = Ireland, KR = South Korea, MK = Macedonia, NO = Norway, ES = Spain, SE = Sweden.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552214&req=5

f1-animals-01-00007: Ratio of female to male (F/M) scores on the Animal Welfare Index2 to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). CZ = Czech Republic, GB = Great Britain, IR = Iran, IE = Ireland, KR = South Korea, MK = Macedonia, NO = Norway, ES = Spain, SE = Sweden.
Mentions: Individual country's scores for the GEM component are presented in Table 4. There were significant relationships between GEM and the ratio of female to male scores on the Animal Welfare, Animal Rights and Animal Experimentation indices, with the strongest relationship being with the Animal Rights Index (Table 5). Overall, Political Participation and Senior Workplace Roles were the important components in the GEM in explaining this relationship, not Economic Participation. For the Animal Rights index ratios this was primarily due to the Political Participation component of the GEM; for the Animal Welfare index ratios it was due to both Political Participation and Senior Workplace Roles. The relationship between female to male (F/M) Animal Welfare Index2 and the Gender Empowerment Index is shown in Figure 1, and it is evident that there is a high correlation, but that Ireland is an outlier. The same trend is evident for the relationship between F/M Animal Rights Index and the Gender Empowerment Index (Figure 2), with a good correlation except for Ireland.

Bottom Line: Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males.Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar.The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that 'emancipated female empathy' operates across countries as well as at a local level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, University of Queensland, Australia. c.phillips@uq.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of 'female empowered empathy' internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar. Across countries female students were more likely to avoid meat and less likely to avoid eggs, milk and seafood than male students, and were more likely to have kept pets than males. Females rated cats as more sentient than males did. The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that 'emancipated female empathy' operates across countries as well as at a local level.

No MeSH data available.